- Sunhak Peace Prize
Future generations refer not only to our own physical descendants
but also to all future generations to come.
Since all decisions made by the current generation will either positively
or negatively affect them, we must take responsibility for our actions.
Sunhak Peace Prize
Making the World Better for Future Generations
2022 Sunhak Peace Prize Laureate
Dame Sarah Catherine Gilbert
- Co-Developer of Oxford-AstraZeneca Vaccine
- Approached vaccine as global public good
Protecting humanity from ‘Diseases -X’
Gavi, The Vaccine Alliance
- Global Leader in Promoting Vaccine Equity at the Forefront of Covid-19
- Contributed to global vaccine equity
Reducing child mortality rate by 50%
Contributed to the achievement of 14 of the 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals
2022 Founders' Special Honorary Award
H.E. Samdech Hun Sen
- Leader of Sustainable Development in Southeast Asia and Supporter of New Peace Process on the Korean
- Lead to the sustainable development of Southeast Asia
Supported the new peace process on the Korean peninsula
To experience true peace, we must first practice true love without expectation of reward.
When our mindset changes from wishing to receive love to wishing to give love, the world of peace will be at hand.
We hope to share the light
of hope with all the people of the
world who pray for world peace.
The Sunhak Peace Prize was established in order to help resolve
worldwide suffering, conflict, poverty and threats to the environment,
by promoting a comprehensive, future-oriented vision of peace.
Peace Issue Post Corona, The Dollar Glut, and Looming Polarization
—Unlimited Supply of Dollars—“The Federal Reserve is committed to use its full range of tools to support the U.S. economy in this challenging time and thereby promote its maximum employment and price stability goals. The Federal Open Market Committee is taking further actions to support the flow of credit to household and businesses.”(US Federal Reserve, March 23, 2020)The key is ‘unlimited dollar supply.’ As the economic crisis caused by the coronavirus in 2020 hit the world, the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) of the Federal Reserve System (FED), the central bank of the USA, issued the above statement.Since then, huge amounts of dollars have been supplied to the world in an unprecedented short period of time in human history. As the United States freed money, Europe and Japan also began to release money unrestrictedly.After the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, the four major central banks in the US, Europe, UK, and Japan have released about $11.3 trillion (KRW 1,464 trillion) into the market through asset purchases. As a result, at the end of 2020, the market currency of the 12 major countries including them was 94.8 trillion dollars, an increase of 17.4% in one year.www.atlanticcouncil.orgThe result was an increase in debt. As a result of the world's unlimited free money, the total global debt will reach $303 trillion in 2021, which is 3.6 times the sum of the world's GDP.www.weforum.org/agenda—The two axes of economic management: fiscal policy and monetary policy—Let's talk a little bit about basic economic theory. The government and central bank manage economic growth and prices through ‘fiscal policy’ and ‘monetary policy.’○ Fiscal policyFiscal policy is the policy deciding how the government collects and uses taxes. During an economic expansion phase, taxes are raised and spending is lowered to prevent overheating. In times of economic downturn, the government stimulates the economy by lowering taxes and increasing spending.○ Monetary PolicyMonetary policy is a policy by which the Central Bank regulates the amount of money (money supply) circulating in the market by adjusting the prime interest rate. In developed countries, price stability is the most important role of central banks.In order to prevent inflation, central banks in each country collect money from the market by raising interest rates between central banks and commercial banks or by raising the reserve requirement ratio. When the amount of money available in the market decreases, the value of money increases and, conversely, the price of money decreases.Let’s take a look at the underlying concepts.—Can unlimited dollar supply be a solution to escape the COVID-19 crisis?—Former Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke (Source: USA Today)When the U.S. financial crisis hit in 2008, Federal Reserve Chairman Ben Bernanke escaped the crisis by releasing unlimited money. Chairman Bernanke held that the 10 years of Great Depression of the 1930s was caused by the Central Bank's passive response.The Fed (Central Bank of the U.S.) led by Chairman Ben Bernanke buys mortgage-backed securities held by commercial banks and supplies dollars to the market. In addition, it uses a low interest rate policy to circulate huge amounts of money into the market to promote consumption.In other words, the Fed's goal was to create a virtuous cycle of ‘expansion of currency → cut interest rate → rise in asset prices → maximize the wealth effect* → increase consumption → increase product demand → increase factory utilization → create jobs → decrease unemployment → economic growth.’ This attempt worked. The crisis was overcome, and the game was revived.*Wealth effect: Phenomenon where consumption increases when assets such as real estate and stocks riseThis crisis escape strategy was also applied to the 2020 Corona crisis. But the main difference is that it was applied on a vastly larger scale and much faster.The U.S. has released about 3 trillion dollars (3,840 trillion won) in the three months from March 2020 alone. Compared to $4.5 trillion (5,760 trillion won) released over six years during the 2008 financial crisis, you can estimate how much money was released in a short period of time.(M2 money supply in the U.S. - a sharp rise is observed in 2020)―Loose dollars and a rise instock, real estate, and coin prices―However, the market scene is different from that of a financial crisis, where the money is released but is not in circulation. This phenomenon is due to the shrinking rate of consumption and decreasing investment sentiment.As a result, the huge sum of money released was directed into the asset market, such as stock and real estate. On top of that, virtual currency was also affected. In April 2021, its market capitalization spiked to the level of Apple Inc., one of the top world market capitalizations. (U.S. stock prices have been on a sharp rise since March 2020.Purple indicates S&P500 and blue indicates NASDAQ)Global companies have been eager to buy back stock and pay dividends rather than investing in production and technological innovation with money borrowed at low interest rates.What happens when a company buys back its stock? The number of stocks in circulation decreases, stock prices rise, and the income of global corporate executives and employees who receive a portion of their wages as stock rises.(The U.S. Home Price Index has risen sharply since March 2020 as seen in this graph.)(Treasury stock buyback trend of S&P 500 companies)—The Counterattack of Loose Money: Inflation—In the wake of oversupply of money, supply shortages due to the global shutdown and the Russia-Ukraine war, prices of key raw materials such as energy, steel, and food are skyrocketing.The Global "Perfect Storm" Sparked by the War - Peace Issue Agflation_Special Delivery Russia-Ukraine bombs flew right to my kitchen table - Peace Issue(See previous SunHak Peace Prize articles on the rise in raw material and food prices)The US Consumer Price Index (CPI), an indicator of inflation, rose 8.6% in May 2022, the largest since 1981. The New York stock market plunged due to the first inflation in 41 years; day by day the market decline shows no signs of letup.(U.S. Inflation Index)Europe also faces a serious inflation crisis. Eurozone's Consumer Price Index (CPI), released last month, rose 8.1% year-on-year, said to be an all-time high. In response, the European Central Bank (ECB) is changing the zero-interest rate policy, which has remained for 11 years: In today's news it will raise in 0.25 percentage points in July.Korea, which has raised the base rate since August last year, also suggested an additional rate hike from the current 1.75%, saying that if the timing of the rate hike is missed, the damage caused by inflation is likely to be greater.Raising interest rates is like turning off the faucet where the money is pouring out. Now, major countries are embarking on “tapering,” i.e., reducing their liquidity supply.What will happen if the money suddenly starts to be withdrawn? Specifically, what will happen when the world's reserve currency, the dollar, begins to contract?—A retreat of the dollar to the US, a financial crisis that emerging countries must face—Why does the dollar affect the world? Because the dollar is the reserve currency.In 1973, the United States negotiated an agreement with Saudi Arabia to “transact in petrodollars.” The 20th century was the age of oil, and the world had to obtain dollars unconditionally to buy oil, so the dollar solidified its position as the global reserve currency.(U.S. President Nixon on the left in 1973, Saudi King Faisal on the right)For the past 40 years, the U.S. has overcome its domestic economic problems through quantitative easing (increasing money supply). The loosed dollars are exported abroad.When more dollars circulate, their value decreases, and other countries that held dollars sit still and suffer the loss of foreign currency assets.Conversely, when the US raises interest rates to keep up with inflation, the dollars that have been abroad return to the US. Neighboring countries must defend themselves by raising their interest rates higher than the US to avoid a dollar shortage, that is, a currency crisis. In the process, liabilities incurred in real estate and financial markets are aggravated and asset prices fall.In other words, emerging countries are suffering in one way or another depending on the monetary policy of the United States. Examples are the national bankruptcy crisis in Latin America (Argentina, Mexico, Brazil) in the 1980s, the Asian financial crisis in the 1990s, and the financial crisis in China in 2008.Emerging markets' currencies are depreciating as the US rate hikes move. For example, the Turkish lira, which was 8 liras to the dollar in June 2021, has now plummeted to 17 liras.The money quickly released today becomes a debt that future generations will have to pay. Wealth grew rapidly during the pandemic, but the vulnerable suffer from inflation.(Protesting the end of deferred tenant eviction in New York in January 2022. Source: AFP)In fact, the rate of increase in U.S. house rents in 2021 was 19.8%, outpacing the rate of increase in house prices of 16.9%. Rents in New York and Miami jumped 40% from the previous year, so the difficulties of the low-income class are getting bigger.Profits from Pain, Pandemic and Billionaires - Peace Issue(Link to the previous Sunhak Peace Prize article on ‘Profits from Pain, Pandemic and Billionaires’)The U.S. Consumer Sentiment Index, a measure of household purchase motivation, recently hit an all-time low of 50.2. Now there are fears that, even though interest rates are raised, inflation is not being stemmed and the economy has entered stagflation.www.cnbc.com(Articles above about stagflation concerns)Now the world is heading down a road we have not experienced before. As in the past 40 years, the United States will likely attempt to overcome the crisis by controlling dollar exports this time as well. It remains to be seen whether neighboring countries will continue to tolerate the burden.
Peace Issue A Hellish Horror Show Created by Inequality
ㅡThe Bloody"Squid Game" isReality—not just a movie ㅡ“The Rose of Sharon has Bloomed” As I desperately run forward, a gunshot rings out at the back of my head. Dead bodies are strewn across the playing field, spattered with red blood. The scene is oddly incongruous, as the background music “Fly Me to the Moon” croons pleasantly on. Because of the soothing music, the monstrous atrocity somehow doesn't feel like a tragedy. Debt, Inequality, Death Squid Game roused a global sensation by ranking first in the global popularity rankings on Netflix. The fierce survival game played by Koreans driven by debt to vie for the 45.6 billion won in prize money exposes the outrageous inequality of our era. For some, it is sheer “hell,” but for VIPs who enjoy gaming while drinking the finest whiskey, it is simply an exciting “horror show.” British daily The Guardian published an article titled "Squid Game, a hellish horror show taking the whole world by storm" in an article on September 28th. The Guardian asks, "Yes, the games are terrifying but how much worse are they than the half-lives of those living in interminable debt?" Someone's daily reality might even be more gruesome than the situation in Squid Game. The reason this drama garnered global consensus is probably because the world we live in is unequal.ㅡChain Links of Inequality LinkedTogether in Unbreakable Chains ㅡWhat is inequality? First, let's look back at the meaning of equality. The dictionary meaning of “equality” is “even and consistent without discrimination.” In other words, it means “treating all people equally and giving them equal opportunities” without dividing or discriminating based on differences in grades or levels. Conversely, inequality means “the state of being uneven due to discrimination.” In Squid Game, some risk their lives for money, and some enjoy death just for pleasure. Gamers have a lot of wealth, fame, and power, but gamers choose to gamble with their one and only life rather than be in debt. This is inequalityWorse still, the chains of inequality are chained together. Alienation, conflict, and poverty caused by inequality create social problems such as crime, disease, and environmental pollution, and the damage makes the lives of the vulnerable more difficult. It is a vicious cycle that repeats itself.ㅡ2021The global level of inequality is even worse ㅡOn December 7, 2021, the World Inequality Lab, in which Thomas Piketty, a professor at the Paris School of Economics, and others participated, announced the “World Inequality Report 2022.” The report contains the results of research on social and economic imbalances in areas such as income, wealth, gender, and environment. The global level of inequality this year is worse than the previous year.Go to World Inequality Report:The World InequalityReport 2022 presents the most up-to-date & complete data on inequality worldwide The report reveals that 2020, during the COVID-19 pandemic, was the year with the steepest growth in the world's billionaires' share of wealth in history. Between 2019 and 2021, the wealth of the top 0.01% increased by more than 5% annually. The top 0.1% own 11.2% of the world's wealth and have an average of 81.7 million euros (about 108.5 billion won) each.According to the report, the richest 10% of the world's people earned 52% of global income (a total of 36.7 trillion euros, or 49.6 million billion won for the richest sector), while the poorest 50% earned 8.5% of total income (a total of 6 trillion euros, or 8,113 trillion won for the lower half). That's a whopping difference of 31 times. The disparity in holdings is even greater. The average wealth of the top 10% was 550,900 euros (about 744 million won), while assets of the bottom 50% average 2,900 euros (about 3.92 million won). So there is a 190-fold difference. Because the gap between the rich and the poor has widened during the corona period, Oxfam and other civic groups around the world have even called the COVID-19 virus an “inequality virus.” This is because the rich and middle class can choose a variety of responses to overcome the epidemic, but the poor and the vulnerable have no choice but to suffer from COVID-19. “The level of inequality around the world today is close to what it was in the early 20th century, around the peak of Western imperialism,” the report notes. 100 years have passed, but inequality in the global economy is still rampant, and there is still a long way to go to turn inequality into equality. ㅡPakistani children earn $2for sewing Nike soccer ballsall day long for 14 hours.ㅡThere are two main opinions on why inequality appears. One is the view that it is because each person has different abilities, and the other is that society is creating structural inequality. The international community is focusing on resolving “structural inequality.”Pakistan sweatshop producing Nike soccer balls, 1996 .There are kids in Pakistan who sew Nike soccer balls all day without a break. These kids sew 14 hours a day and earn about $2 a day. On the other hand, Nike executives can benefit enormously from their cheap labor. If Nike executives' hourly or daily wages were valued equivalent to the lifetime of a worker, would it be fair? It's not just Nike soccer balls. Unfair trade using cheap labor from underdeveloped countries is endemic in Africa's coffee and chocolate industries, quarries, cotton industries, brick making, and other global industries. Such unfair trade functions to consolidate global “structural inequality.” A poor economic structure leads to a “vicious cycle of poverty.” The economic structure of developed countries is based on high value-added industries such as software and patented pharmaceuticals, but poorer countries depend on labor-intensive industries, making it difficult to grow. The structure of inequality in which the poor continue to be poor, and the rich are bound to get richer is a vicious cycle around the world. ㅡWhy did the poorcountries become poor? ㅡ Why did poor countries become poor? First of all, countries that have experienced wars and political conflicts are more likely to be economically poor than those that have not. War destroys a nation's communications and facilities, creates a labor shortage, and, if continued, slows investment and business activity. In addition, when the government fails to fulfill its role due to political conflict, investment and various economic activities are reduced and the country suffers economic difficulties. 'Corruption' causes a shortfall in welfare services Countries with high levels of corruption and crime do not readily invest in people's well-being and in new businesses. If welfare such as public infrastructure, education, medical care, and pension are not properly guaranteed, the foundation for economic development is weak, and global investors are reluctant to invest in new businesses. Low levels of education Countries with low levels of education have no choice but to focus on primary industries. Developed countries, on the other hand, equipped with a skilled workforce and skills through high-quality education, dominate capital-intensive industries, and drive global economic growth. Without a universal and systematic education system, technological development and creative economic activities cannot be created. Substandard medical infrastructure Even ailments that can be healed with simple treatment in developed countries, often lead to life-threatening maladies in underdeveloped countries with poor medical infrastructure. Every year 100 million people fall into extreme poverty because of medical bills, and 10,000 people die every day because of lack of access to health care for economic reasons. Because health is not guaranteed, it is difficult to promote personal and social growth.ㅡ The monkey society teaches us the way to put an end to the Squid Game scenario! The method? Coexistence, Sharing, Care, Cooperation. ㅡWe cannot solve the challenges of the 21st century without addressing wealth inequality. How can we end the bloody "Squid Game" scenario in our world? Perhaps a monkey named Bonobo knows the answer. In the book Bonobos: The Forgotten Apes (1997) by primatologist Frans De Waal, a chimpanzee called the bonobo features.Most research on chimpanzees reveals that chimpanzees have a male-dominated vertical hierarchy, engage in power struggles involving violence, and wage brutal warfare with other chimpanzee tribes. However, according to Frans de Waal's research, bonobos have completely different behavior and culture. Bonobos have robust female-to-female bonds, and males do not dominate them. In addition, bonobos do not create detailed vertical hierarchies and are said to care for and embrace the sick or weak within the herd without alienating or oppressing them. In bonobo society, gender equality is maintained, the value of ”feminine things” is emphasized, and a culture of coexistence, sharing, care, and cooperation exists to resolve inequality. This bonobo culture gave a huge shock to the world of primatology as well as anthropology, sociology, and women's academia. Even in the harsh real world like Squid Game, there are groups that are making efforts for coexistence and cooperation like the bonobo society.● Oxfam, an international relief organization that creates a “poverty free, fair world”Oxfam is an international relief and development organization established by the Oxford Academic Council in 1942 to relieve poverty during World War II. Over the past 80 years, more than 100 countries around the world have conducted various aid activities to overcome poverty.Oxfam is exerting influence in policymaking through cooperation with governments and various international organizations, as well as solving the drinking water problem in underdeveloped countries, and carrying out humanitarian relief activities such as food aid, community development, and education projects. In particular, Oxfam is carrying out activities such as “stop tax avoidance,” “paying fair wages for all,” and “expansion of health and education services” to resolve the global gap between the rich and the poor. ● Billionaires pledge to donate (The Giving Pledge)The participation of the wealthy is essential to transform wealth inequality into equality. Global billionaires are also joining forces to tackle inequality. The Donation Pledge is a charitable organization founded in 2010 by Warren Buffett, Berkshire Hathaway, and Bill Gates; to become eligible to join, the principle is to donate at least half of one’s fortune. Members include Facebook founder Mark Zuckerberg and Tesla CEO Elon Musk. ㅡPost COVID-195 steps to rebuilding a more equal worldby Oxfam ㅡIn order to resolve structurally fixed global inequality, fair and inclusive policies must be prepared. In particular, it is most important to effectively establish a system of public services and welfare policies such as “education” and “health” for all human life. Oxfam presents the following 5 steps to overcome inequality after COVID-19: 1. The government should value women's unpaid care work.The government must build an economy for poor black women as well as rich white men. Governments need to start valuing the things that really matter: the millions of hours of unpaid care that women have been doing. 2. The government invests in free public services.Governments must provide free universal health and education services regardless of wealth, gender or race. 3. Comprehensive job security is required.Ending poverty requires not only wages but also much more comprehensive job security, including labor rights, sick leave, and unemployment benefits. 4. We need to make sure the rich pay their fair share of taxes. Progressive taxation of the wealthiest members of society is the cornerstone for building an egalitarian society. 5. Climate change must be addressed.Global warming is the greatest threat to humankind, making the lives of the vulnerable more difficult. The international community must end all subsidies for fossil fuels and invest in low-carbon industries, creating millions of new jobs.Source: Less billionaires and more nurses: five steps to rebuild a more equal world after Covid-19 | Oxfam Internationalㅡ Saving each other: The wisdom of coexistenceㅡ Ki-hoon, the main character and final survivor of the “hell-like horror show”—Squid Game, says these things: “Originally, it is not that I believe because people are trustworthy. I believe because if I don’t I have no one to rely on." The secret by which Ki-hoon, who seems a bit immature, was able to become the final survivor by defeating the elite “Sang-woo,” who graduated from the top ranks, maybe was because he has the “wisdom to live together,” as can be seen from the above line.In 2020~2022, with COVID-19 pervasive, people all over the world realized that we are social animals who influence and affect each other, irrespective of the degree of being rich or poor. “Vaccine selfishness,” the view that only me and the people of my country need to live, eventually turned it into a more powerful mutant virus and it returned like a deadly boomerang.The lesson that COVID-19 can teach us is probably the message that “solidarity and cooperation are essential because the lives and deaths of all humankind are intertwined like a web.” Vaccines aren't the only thing humanity needs to share to survive. In order for mankind to prosper peacefully, inequality must be reduced through a culture of coexistence, sharing, care, and cooperation. Only then can each of us act so as to save one another and our whole world!
Peace Issue Creating a Gender Equal World
ㅡThe girl who went to draw water in the Stone Age—where is she now?ㅡ“About 22,800 years ago, there lived a girl in the Stone Age. She took an empty bucket and went out to draw water, but for some reason, she has not arrived home to this day.” What is this really about? In 2016, UNICEF released a report stating that the total amount of time women and girls around the world spend each day fetching water amounts to 200 million hours per year. Converting this long time into days, it is 8.3 million days, or more than 22,800 years in years. Sanjay Wijesekera, UNICEF's global head of water, sanitation and hygiene, illustrated this horrific reality, saying, “It would be as if a woman started with her empty bucket in the Stone Age and didn’t arrive home with water until 2016.” Fetching water is not only time consuming, it is also hazardous. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 8 out of 10 women and girls in Bangladesh are exposed to sexual assault and harassment while going out to get water. What if girls and women could have spent that huge amount of time receiving education instead of laboring to draw water? Perhaps the sexist infringements taking place around the world would have been reduced significantly. ㅡWhy American Women Screamed Bread and Roses 100 Years Agoㅡ About 110 years ago, 20,000 angry female textile workers gathered in New York's Lutkers Square. They marched to demand the right to live and the right to vote. Source: Mount Holyoke Archives and Special Collections (https://mhc-asc.tumblr.com/post/173999534645/at-the-conclusion-of-the-mtholyoke-laurel-parade) It was March 8, 1908, and these American ladies rose to commemorate women who died in a fire after working 12 to 18 hours a day in a wretched clothing factory without electricity. The women demanded safe working conditions, equal wages to men, humane working hours, freedom to establish unions, the right to vote, and held a large scale protest. They held large-scale demonstrations chanting, “Give us bread (adequate wages to survive on) and roses (suffrage to vote in elections)!” Since then, "Bread and Roses" has become the symbol of Women's Day, and in the U.S.A. the following year, March 8 was declared 'National Women's Day' to commemorate this protest, and following this 'International Women's Day' has been established around the world. In 1975,the United Nations designated 1975 as International Women's Year, and in 1977, March 8 was officially celebrated as International Women's Day. Since then, March 8 has become an important anniversary that has spread as a movement calling for the abolition of gender discrimination and the improvement of the status of women around the world. ㅡ Here we are in the 21st century: What is the reality of women around the world? ㅡ Some 45 years have passed since the establishment of International Women's Day. What can we say is the reality for women around the world today in 2021? The dictionary definition of gender inequality is “a phenomenon in which differences occur in the status, authority, and prestige occupied by men and women in a society.” When people are treated unfairly just because they are male or female, it can be said that “gender inequality” has occurred. In general, when we talk about “gender inequality,” we are referring to discrimination against women. Statistically, many of the world's women are less privileged than men and deprived of opportunities to defend themselves from poverty and fear. In 2010 the United Nations Development Program (UNDP) created the Gender Inequality Index (GII) to assess levels of gender inequality in nations around the world.Since then, the United Nations Development Program has released the Gender Inequality Index, indicating the level of gender inequality in each nation based on a range between 0 and 1, with 0 being 0% inequality; 1 being 100% inequality.Gender Inequality Index (GII) evaluates inequality according to the following five indices in three categories (Reproductive Health, Empowerment, and Labor Market): ● Reproductive Health ① Maternal mortality per 100,000 children ② Population born per 1,000 adolescents female ● Women's Rights ③ Ratio of female parliamentarians ④ Proportion of female population with secondary or higher education among the population aged 25 and over ● Labor Participation ⑤ Women's economic participation rate Even in the 21st century, the reality of gender discrimination women face in underdeveloped countries is dire. According to the 2020 Gender Inequality Index of 189 countries, Yemen (0.795) was the most gender unequal country in the world followed by Pacific Papua New Guinea (0.725) and Sub-Saharan African nations such as Chad (0.710), Central African Republic (0.680) and Mali (0.671). Sub-Saharan African countries have very high maternal mortality and high adolescent fertility rates owing to poor medical infrastructure. Also, because it is difficult for girls to receive proper education, it is difficult for them to participate in economic activities, and entering the political world is a long story. On the other hand, the country with the lowest gender inequality in the world was Switzerland (0.025 points). In other words, in terms of gender equality, Switzerland is the most egalitarian country in the world, followed by Denmark (2nd place, 0.038 points), Sweden (3rd place, 0.039 points), the Netherlands and Belgium (tied 4th place, 0.043 points) in that order. In general, the Nordic countries measure up as countries with good gender equality. Because Nordic countries have sophisticated medical infrastructure, maternal mortality and adolescent fertility rates are low, and because both men and women can receive high-quality educational services, women actively participate in economic activities and enter politics. ㅡ Women and girls suffer horrendous abuse and tragedy even at this very moment ㅡ While progress has been made over many years on gender equality and women's rights, women and girls around the world still face horrific discrimination and violence. Horrible Child Abuse, Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) Female Genital Mutilation (FGM) is a procedure in which part or all of a woman's genitals are cut with a sharp tool, performed at the stage of coming-of-age ceremony. Because the procedure is very unhygienic and dangerous, in the short term, a woman is exposed to the risk of death, bacterial infection, and sexually transmitted diseases due to excessive bleeding, and in the long term, she may experience irregular menstruation, infertility, hormonal abnormalities, uterine bleeding, and psychological trauma. Up to 200 million women and girls in 30 countries have experienced FGM, many of whom suffer from sequelae (aftereffects) and complications. This amounts to 5% of the global female population. Although progress has been made in the past 10 years, such as a 30% decrease in FGM, FGM is still being practiced in about 30 countries, mainly in Africa. Lack of legal protection against violence In 49 countries, there are no legal mechanisms to protect women from violence. More than one billion women worldwide are without legal protection against physical and sexual violence in the home. A study by the United Nations concluded that physical and sexual violence against women is often perpetrated by familiar people in familiar places and that therefore “the most dangerous place for women is their home.” Inequality of Educational Opportunity Women spend on average three times more time than men doing unpaid work (childcare and family support, cooking, cleaning, etc.). The more time a person spends doing unpaid work, the less likely that person is to get an education. One in four young women aged 15 to 24 have not graduated from primary school, and nearly two-thirds of illiterate adults worldwide are women. A lack of education limits women's access to knowledge and information and robs them of opportunities to work in the future. Half the world is women but only one-fourth of parliamentarians are women Although women make up half of the world's population, they represent only 24.3% of seats in parliaments around the world. The percentage of women in parliament is an indicator of women's political participation in each country. The low ratio means that there is a high possibility that issues that are activated mainly by female politicians, such as parental leave, pensions, laws related to gender equality, and violence based on gender, are being neglected. As such, gender inequality is not only occurring in a specific country but is a global phenomenon. What is the international community doing to address gender inequality? ㅡGender Equality!A fundamental right anda prerequisite for a sustainable worldㅡ The fifth goal of the UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) is to achieve gender equality and to promote the empowerment of all women and girls. Gender equality is not only a fundamental human right, but an essential foundation for a sustainable world that seeks peace and prosperity. Shall we take a look at the detailed goals of SDGs No. 5? The six sub-goals are the key challenges for achieving a gender-equal world. SDG5.1 End all forms of discrimination against women and girls everywhereSDG5.2 End all violence against women and girls, including trafficking and sexual exploitationSDG5.3 End all harmful practices, such as forced child marriage and female genital mutilationSDG5.4 Public service, infrastructure, social security policies, and promotion of gender equality in the family, so that all people recognize and value unpaid care and houseworkSDG5.5 Ensuring the full participation of women and equal opportunities for leadership in the political, economic, and public sphereSDG5.6 Ensure universal access to sexual and reproductive healthcare and rights As suggested in the detailed goals, if social changes are made in the direction of providing women and girls with education, healthcare, and decent jobs, and increasing women's participation in political and economic decision-making, the human rights of women around the world will be improved. Of course, we will be able to take a step towards a more peaceful and prosperous world. ㅡTogether forgender equality!ㅡ Various efforts are being made for gender equality all over the world. ‘EachForEqual’ Campaign ‘#EachforEqual’ is a campaign launched by the United Nations to celebrate International Women’s Day on March 8, 2020. It is meant to challenge gender stereotypes, fight prejudice, broaden awareness, and work to improve the situation in our respective places. Introduce how you can break gender stereotypes and raise your voice for the spread of gender equality on social media, and share it with the hashtag '#EachforEqual'. ‘Stand For Her Land’ Campaign Did you know that women in the world own only 13% of all agricultural land? This campaign was launched in 2019 to ensure women's rights to land and property. It emphasizes that securing land ownership and property rights is of the utmost importance in order for women to smoothly participate in farming and other agricultural activities and insists on guaranteeing women's property rights through the reform of laws and systems. ㅡGender gap is wideningduring COVID pandemic ㅡ “Those industries mainly hit by the lockdown are women’s workplaces. As a result, the unemployment rate for women is much higher than for men.” World Economic Forum 2021 Global Gender Gap Report Check out the gender gap around the world! https://www.weforum.org/reports/global-gender-gap-report-2021 Despite various efforts and progress toward a gender-equal world, there still seems to be a long way to go. It is said that overcoming the gender gap has been delayed by 36 years due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This is the conclusion of the 'Global Gender Gap Report 2021', which was released in March by the World Economic Forum (WEF) in 156 countries around the world, including the current state of gender gap in politics, economy, education, and health. Before Corona, it was expected that it would take 99.5 years for gender equality to be achieved, but now it has increased to 135.6 years. The rapid increase in the number of years it will take to overcome the gender gap is due to the large gender gap in the ‘economic field.’ The report predicts that the economic gender gap will take another 268 years to close. In addition, during lockdown, many women were confined in their homes or communities and suffered physical and sexual violence. In sub-Saharan Africa and the Middle East, the number of girls undergoing FGM has increased compared to pre-epidemic levels. Looking at the gender gap ranking by country in 2021,the countries with the highest Gender Gap Index (GGI) were Iceland (0.892), Finland (0.861), Norway (0.849), New Zealand (0.840), and Sweden (0.823). The nations with the lowest were Syria (0.568), Pakistan (0.556), Iraq (0.535), Yemen (0.492) and Afghanistan (0.444). The graph on the left is the Gender Gap Index (GGI) of Afghanistan, which ranked the lowest. It scored below the global average in all categories, with economic participation and opportunity 0.180, educational attainment 0.514, health and survival 0.952, and political empowerment 0.132. The graph on the right is the Gender Gap Index (GGI) for Iceland, which ranked No. 1. They scored 0.846 for economic participation and opportunity, 0.999 for educational attainment, 0.964 for health and survival, and 0.760 for political empowerment. We should note the disastrous results of the lower ranking countries, as well as the fact that none of the upper ranking nations reached or surpassed a score of 1. After all, even 20 years after entering the 21st century, it shows that there is still a long way to go in order to create a gender-equal world. ㅡLet's create a worldwhere girls get booksinstead of buckets!ㅡ We are all mother's sons and father's daughters. Just as we share unconditional love in the family regardless of gender, we can make a better world if we respect and embrace each other in society regardless of gender. Gender equality means equal opportunities and participation are guaranteed for both men and women as members of society. Eliminating discrimination against women in society and providing them with opportunities and rights has a positive impact on the health and productivity of families, communities, nations, and the global village as a whole. Here is the girl who left home with a bucket during the Stone Age now. Let's all unite and work together to bring knowledge to school instead of the dusty trail, books instead of heavy buckets, and knowledge along with clean water!
Peace Issue Sustainable consumption and production to save the planet
ㅡ The dirtiness is the attractive point Do you know the Freitag bag? ㅡ Do you know Freitag? Freitag is a Swiss brand that sells bags made from recycled materials that have been used for a certain period of time. As it is an ‘upcycling’ bag, it is dirty even if it is a new product, yet that is the attractive point of Freitag. Moreover, Freitag bags are also environmentally friendly. 50% of the energy required to operate its factory utilizes recycled heat, and 30% of the water required to make bags utilizes rainwater. This is by collecting rainwater as in Switzerland, it rains for more than 140 days a year. In fact, the bag made from ‘garbage’ is priced at hundreds of thousands of won. The reason many consumers purchase Freitag products even though the price is not reasonable is because they consider the global environment. Besides Freitag, many products are being produced in consideration of the global environment. One can appreciate ‘good products’ at a glance without having to research each one! ㅡ Find your carbon footprint! ㅡ What is carbon footprint? ‘Carbon footprint’ refers to the total amount of carbon dioxide among greenhouse gases generated during the entire process of activities, production, and consumption of individuals, companies, and countries. The 'carbon footprint' originated in 2006 when the British Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology (POST) rendered the total amount of carbon dioxide generated during the production of products to be displayed as a footprint. A lower carbon footprint means less impact on the environment. Most of the things we consume, especially mass-produced ones in factories, have a high carbon footprint. A large amount of carbon is emitted not only from clothing, food, electronic devices, and automobiles, but also from ‘energy production’ required for daily life and industrial activities. Examine your country's carbon footprint on the Global Footprint Network! https://data.footprintnetwork.org/?_ga=2.194457381.966288939.1635924826-1453603342.1635924826#/countryTrends?cn=5001&type=BCtot,EFCtot According to the 2019 Global Footprint Network survey, the carbon footprint of humanity as a whole has steadily augmented since the mid-20th century, increasing 11 times compared to 1961. The reason for the increase is the ‘excessive activity of humanity’. What is the carbon footprint system? The ‘Carbon Footprint System’ is a system that grants certification marks so that businesses and consumers can produce and consume eco-friendly products. Currently, many countries such as the UK, Canada, USA, Sweden are implementing the system. ‘Stage 1 Carbon Footprint Certification’ is a system that marks on products the total amount of carbon dioxide generated in all processes from production to disposal. ‘Stage 2 Low-carbon Product Certification’ is a system that certifies products that have less than the average carbon emission of the same product and have reduced greenhouse gas emissions by applying low-carbon technology. If we all purchase products with the Stage 2 low-carbon product certification mark, we can take care of the Earth a little more, right? ㅡ Looking after our Earth Sustainable consumption and production ㅡ What is ‘sustainable consumption and production’? The 12th goal of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), which was resolved by the UN General Assembly in 2015 to be achieved by 2030, is ‘sustainable consumption and production’. This refers to economic activities to reduce the use of natural resources and harmful substances in the entire life cycle of products and services, and to reduce the emission of waste and pollutants. Hence, it aims to ‘inject less resources, obtain more results, and emit less pollutants’. In order to take good care of our planet, we must pay attention not only to carbon emissions, but also how many resources are consumed and how much waste is produced. ㅡ The Earth's enemy Is our enemy ㅡ When the Earth is experiencing substantial difficulty, so do we. Who is making our precious planet suffer so much? The culprit is the current 'mass production-consumption-disposal' system. After the Industrial Revolution, considerable amounts of products were mass-produced in the factory system, and the products poured into the market were consumed in large quantities. At the end of their life, they were discarded en masse. The harmful effects produced by the ‘mass production-consumption-disposal’ system are becoming extremely toxic to humanity. ① Waste and exhaustion of resources Most of the products produced and distributed in the global village are made from 'resources of the earth'. Typical examples include wood, which is a material for paper, plant fibers and petroleum by-products required to make clothing, and grains. The latter is used as raw materials for diverse foods. Yet with the mass production system, the resources used to produce products are increasing exponentially every year. How much resource is your country consuming? Please check here! https://www.footprintnetwork.org/content/images/uploads/LPR_2008_english.pdf According to a 2008 Global Footprint Network survey, the countries with the highest global resource consumption are the United States, United Kingdom and Germany. If everyone on the planet were living the American way of life, we would need at least 4.5 planets the size of the Earth. Global population growth is driving further resource consumption. Resources such as water and underground resources are already experiencing shortages. ② Global warming Greenhouse gases are emitted throughout the production, distribution, use and disposal of products. Excessive accumulation of greenhouse gases raises the Earth's temperature and threatens the survival of all. Download 2021 IPCC report (https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar6/wg1/downloads/report/IPCC_AR6_WGI_SPM.pdf) According to a report published by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in August 2021, the Earth's surface temperature has augmented 1.09 degrees Celsius above pre-industrial levels. The report sternly warns that 'If greenhouse gas emissions are not reduced, the global average temperature rise will reach 1.5 degrees between 2021 and 2040'. In many parts of the world, sea level rise due to global warming and extreme weather events (hurricanes, typhoons, floods, and droughts) are already causing colossal human and property damage. The biodiversity of flora and fauna is also declining rapidly. If the global temperature rise reaches the critical point of 1.5 degrees, the survival of mankind is expected to be even more at risk. ③ Overflowing garbage With the advent of the mass production system, the price of products has decreased, and we enjoy a lifestyle of consuming more and more and disposing of more. There are disposable items used for convenience, packaging materials due to overpacking, outdated clothing, leftover food, and food and industrial products that are discarded even before reaching the shelves. These issues have created a serious garbage crisis around the world. Read the 2021 World Bank Annual Report https://www.worldbank.org/en/about/annual-report According to a World Bank report, global waste emissions are expected to increase from 2 billion tons in 2016 to 3.4 billion tons by 2050. As the population increases, consumption will also increase, and the amount of waste will also increase. ㅡ Thinking about the Earth in daily life ㅡ Practicing sustainable consumption and production is not grandiose. Merely think about the Earth once in a while in your daily life. How about joining the 'Meat free Monday' or 'Zero Waste'? ‘Meat free Monday’ “You can change the world in one day of a week” -Slogan of ‘Meat free Monday'- This campaign started in 2009 by former Beatles member Paul McCartney with his two children. In order to solve the diverse problems induced by the global meat consumption culture, it proposed to eat a vegetarian meal at least one day a week. ‘Zero Waste’ This is a campaign to share cases of reducing waste in daily life with the aim of minimizing waste discharge to near zero. You can introduce your daily experience of reducing waste through social media and add hashtags such as #Zerowastechallenge. Examples include packing food in individual containers, avoiding plastic straws, using tumblers and shopping carts, and cooking with leftover food. ㅡ COVID-19 Evidence that Earth is limited ㅡ The 'mass production-consumption-disposal' system that supports the global economy has persistently destroyed the global environment. Ultimately, it threatens even the survival of mankind. The COVID-19 pandemic, which has terrified the whole world, can also be regarded as a consequence of environmental destruction. This is because many diseases that stayed only in the wild spread to human society as humans invaded the realm of nature in order to enjoy a rich material life. We must pay more attention to sustainable consumption and production in order to prevent a disease like COVID-19 from recurring on the planet that has reached its limit. Let's start by carrying a tumbler in our bags.
Peace Issue Global transition to sustainable energy
ㅡThe secret to becoming No.1!ㅡ ▲ Tesla Model 3 Elon Musk is the world's richest person as of November 2021 according to Forbes.He is said to have an estimated net worth of $320.3 billion. He has succeeded in an array of businesses such as PayPal, an online payment system, SpaceX, a rocket and spacecraft business, Tesla Energy, a solar panel business, and OpenAI, which is researching artificial intelligence. One of the most well-known companies is Tesla, which makes electric vehicles. According to Consumer Reports, 91% of Tesla drivers said they would buy a Tesla again. The most prevalent reason was “the pleasure of owning a future-oriented image.” Tesla's forward-looking image is reflected in their mission statement. “Tesla's mission is to accelerate the global transition to sustainable energy.” Aren't you curious about what Tesla's goal of “sustainable energy”, that made Elon Musk the world's richest person, is?ㅡPoisoned chaliceFossil energyㅡ First, let's look at “unsustainable energy”. Fossil energy accounts for the largest portion of the energy currently used by mankind. Fossil energy is the heat and pressure from the remains of plants and animals buried in the ground long time ago. It is energy created from fossil fuels that has been accumulated as a result. Examples include coal, oil, and natural gas.Click here to see the percentage of global energy consumption!https://yearbook.enerdata.co.kr/total-energy/world-consumption-statistics.html Fossil fuels are abundant since they are buried underground on a large scale, and they are not only easy to store and transport, but also highly energy efficient. However, fossil fuels are energy that we are depleting, requiring at least millions of years to hundreds of millions of years to be created in the natural world. Experts predict that if consumption continues at the current rate, oil will be depleted in 50.7 years, natural gas in 52.8 years, and coal in 114 years. Yet even more serious than energy depletion are the immense greenhouse gas emissions from fossil energy. Seventy-three percent of the greenhouse gases that cause global warming come from fossil fuels. Humans use fossil fuels such as petroleum, coal, and natural gas, and every year, approximately 51 billion tons of carbon is emitted into the atmosphere. Even as we speak, carbon emitted from fossil fuels is attacking humankind through climate disasters such as heat waves, heavy snowfalls, typhoons, droughts, and forest fires in diverse parts of the world. If we persist in utilizing fossil fuels at such a rate, global warming will reach an irreversible critical point. Bill Gates, a software tycoon-turned environmental activist, warns of an urgent need to halt the usage of fossil fuels in his book How to Avoid a Climate Catastrophe. He assert that “20 percent of greenhouse gases emitted today remain in the atmosphere even after 10,000 years.” He further emphasized the urgent need for a switch to renewable energy if humanity is to survive a climate catastrophe.ㅡEnergy detoxRenewable energyㅡ Our planet is full of toxins and needs an energy detox. This involves reducing the use of fossil fuels and replacing them with sustainable energy, green energy. Types of renewable energy ● Solar heat and solar power: an energy production method that utilizes the heat and light of the sun. It absorbs solar energy to heat water or collects sunlight using a heat collecting plate, stores it in solar cells, and uses it for energy production. ● Wind power: an energy production method that utilizes the kinetic energy of wind. A three-blade windmill spins with the force of the wind and powers a generator to produce energy. ● Hydropower: an energy production method that uses the power of water to turn a generator. After building a dam on a river, water gates can be opened to use the fast-moving water to turns turbines and generates energy. ● Biomass: a method of energy production that utilizes living organisms. Grains, fruits, trees, animal excrement, waste, etc., are converted into ethanol and methane gas to be used as energy. ● Geothermal: An energy production method that utilizes the high heat of the Earth's interior. It uses the hot water that exists underground to operate an electric turbine to produce energy. ● Hydrogen energy: a method of producing energy by burning hydrogen present in organic matter or water. Hydrogen is attracting attention as a pollution-free energy source because it does not emit pollutants even if it is combusted by combining with oxygen in the air.Renewable energy sharehttps://www.irena.org/newsroom/pressreleases/2018/Apr/Global-Renewable-Generation-Continues-its-Strong-Growth-New-IRENA-Capacity-Data-Shows Among these, the most prevalently used renewable energy is hydrogen energy (53%), followed by wind energy (23%) and solar (18%) energy. ㅡSustainable energyGoalㅡ Among the UN's Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) the 7th is “Affordable and Clean Energy.”It becomes somewhat clear that sustainable energy is a global concern, right? The details of this goal set by the United Nations are as follows. 7.1 Ensure universal access to affordable, reliable and modern energy services by 2030 About 2.8 billion people, or one-third of the world's population, use unsanitary and unhealthy fuels such as charcoal, coal, and animal waste for cooking. Moreover, indoor air pollution from these low-quality fuels kills 4.3 million people a year. Ensuring access to energy is essential for survival. 7.2 Significantly increase the share of renewable energy in the global energy mix (diversification of energy sources) by 2030 As of 2017, 17.5 percent of the world's electricity was generated from renewable energy. However, according to the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), to overcome the climate crisis, the share of renewable energy in the total energy must be augmented to two-thirds by 2050.Check out the share of renewable energy in your country!https://ourworldindata.org/energy-mix 7.3 Double global energy efficiency by 2030 2021 SDG7 Energy Generation Reporthttps://trackingsdg7.esmap.org/downloads Energy intensity refers to the amount of energy required to perform a given function. The UN has set a target of reducing energy intensity from 5.6 MJ in 2010 to 3.4 MJ in 2030. Increasing energy efficiency can have positive effects in diverse aspects, such as increased access to energy, reduced air pollution, increased resource value, economic benefits, reduced greenhouse gas emissions, reduced energy prices, and energy productivity. ㅡA faster transition to renewable energyㅡ In 2015, the international community adopted the Paris Agreement, in which both developed and developing countries participated to counter global warming. The goal of the Paris Agreement is to maintain the global average temperature rise well below 2°C compared to pre-industrial levels, and that further efforts should taken to limit it to 1.5°C. In order to limit the increase in global temperature to 1.5℃ or less, it is necessary to transition to a “carbon-neutral” society in which net carbon emissions will be zero by 2050. How can carbon neutrality be achieved? In order to become carbon-neutral, where the amount of carbon emitted and the amount removed is the same, we must first focus on reducing carbon emissions as much as possible. Furthermore, the remaining greenhouse gases must be absorbed by forests or removed using carbon capture, utilization and storage (CCUS) technology. The most important way to achieve carbon neutrality is to shift the main energy source from fossil fuels to new and renewable energy. Renewable energy is energy that does not generate carbon during usage and can be supplied infinitely even if consumed continuously. It is attracting attention as a new resource to replace fossil energy because of its advantages of being clean and inexhaustible. Currently, the international community has set carbon neutrality as the top priority. The most recent Conference of the Parties (COP26), the largest conference in the world where heads of countries gather to discuss climate change, was held in Glasgow, UK in November 2021. The concluding statement implores countries to “strengthen their carbon reduction targets by the end of 2022.” It further emphasizes the need to reduce carbon and greenhouse gas emissions by 45 percent compared to 2010 by 2030 and achieve carbon neutrality by the middle of this century. As a result, the global transition to sustainable energy is expected to accelerate. ㅡFuture energyㅡ The fossil fuel-powered cars we use today will disappear from the planet in the near future. Tesla's mission “accelerating the global transition to sustainable energy” is in line with the vision of the international community. Tesla is preparing for the future of the earth and mankind rather than merely being satisfied as an electric vehicle manufacturer.Many countries are already expanding the means of transportation (automobiles, railways, aircraft, ships, etc.) powered by clean energy sources such as electricity and hydrogen. In particular, they are promoting the full-scale popularization of eco-friendly vehicles, and the use of biofuels is expanding where it is cumbersome to supply eco-friendly vehicles.Tesla is not just about cars. Tesla is focusing on energy that can mitigate the Earth's carbon dioxide concentration. Research on a solar roof (a roof-shaped panel that converts solar heat into electricity) and a power wall (a wall-type battery that stores the remaining electricity generated during the day) is being persistently conducted.As the transition to electric vehicles demonstrates, panels and batteries using renewable energy will naturally become part of our daily lives in the near future.The reason why people are passionate about the future-oriented nature of the Tesla company is that the choice to drive a Tesla now is a valid choice for the present as well as the future. What kind of energy will we be using 100 years later?
Peace Issue Environmental, Social, and Governance factors promote kindness.
ㅡThe straw has the flavor of paper but I applaud you for being environmentally conscious.ㅡStarbucks is a global coffee brand that is particularly popular among coffee franchises. Starbucks' unrivaled atmosphere and coffee taste may be the reason, but the company's long-running "eco-friendly" campaign has also played a role.In 2018, Starbucks launched the Greener Starbucks Korea campaign, and paper straws were introduced for the first time in franchise coffee shops. Paper straws were criticized for having a "paper taste," but they succeeded in projecting an image of a "good brand" to the MZ generation (millennials and generation Z), who consider environmental issues even when drinking a cup of coffee.Starbucks also has introduced cup lids that allow iced drinks to be consumed without straws, as well as reusable cups to eliminate the use of disposable plastic cups entirely. Starbucks' eco-friendly move aligns with the MZ generation's "value consumption" tendency to purchase eco-friendly products, even if the price is a little higher, cementing the company's unrivaled position as the world's No. 1 coffee brand.Companies are focusing on improving their image in order to win the hearts of the MZ generation, because "good companies" are well received by the MZ generation.And at the heart of the transformation is ESG (Environmental, Social, and Governance factors), a new global standard for sustainable management.ㅡThe circumstances surrounding ESG's birth.ㅡFrom quality to priceA new era is on its way How well do you understand ESG? ESG is an indicator for judging a company's non-financial performance. ESG stands for Environmental, Social, and Governance. ESG management has recently emerged as a hot keyword around the world, but it is difficult to summarize the concept in a single sentence because it encompasses a wide range of areas such as "social responsibility," "creating shared value," and "sustainable management."Many people will think of companies' efforts that reflect eco-friendly trends because most companies recognize the need to focus on the environment and practice ESG management.Let’s go over the history of the terminology. In 2004, the term ESG was first used in a report titled "Who Cares Wins" co-authored by the UNGC (UN Global Compact) and more than 20 financial institutions. According to this report, a company's ESG performance can generate mid-to long-term value. Thus, a new management direction was proposed in order for a company to succeed. Source: ANEVISLater that year, the United Nations issued the Principles for Responsible Investment (PRI). Since the term ESG is used in these investment principles, a new management guideline known as ESG has become widely used around the world.In a nutshell, the core of the principles is that when investing in a company, people will now use "value" as a standard rather than mere "performance." Given that these principles were enacted around the time that discussions about climate change began to heat up, ESG can be described as the financial sector's urgent commitment to ensure the survival of the Earth. These are the world's first socially responsible investment principles, developed in collaboration with a number of experts, including financial institutions affiliated with the United Nations Environmental Programme/Finance Initiative (UNEP/FI). PRI consists of six principles and 35 specific practices. | UN Principles of Responsible Investment (PRI)① We actively consider ESG issues in our investment decisions.② We become active investors, incorporating ESG considerations into our investment philosophy and management principles.③ We request that our investment targets disclose information on environmental, social, and governance (ESG) issues.④ We strive for the PRI level and financial industry implementation.⑤ We work together to improve the effectiveness of PRI implementation.⑥ We provide detailed reports to the outside world on the activities and progress of the PRI implementation. Link to UN PRI https://www.unpri.org/pri/about-the-pri In other words, the principles of socially responsible investment are financial institutions' pledge to "invest only in companies that improve society." As of January 2021, 3,615 financial institutions from all over the world had signed on to the Principles of Responsible Investment (PRI). Companies must implement ESG management to attract investment now that more and more financial institutions are willing to invest only in companies that practice EGS management. | Equator PrinciplesThe Equator Principles (EPs) are a voluntary agreement between financial firms not to invest in bad companies. The Equator Agreement's central tenet is not to invest in development projects that threaten the environment or violate human rights. Currently, 123 financial institutions in 37 countries have adopted the Equator Principles. Link to the principle of the equator https://equator-principles.com/ ㅡWho is assessing ESG?ㅡWell-regarded companies are those with a high ESG grade. Companies are eager to manage according to ESG principles in order to gain the favor of investors and consumers. Then, who will assign ESG grades and based on which criteria?There are currently more than 125 organizations worldwide that evaluate ESG. Morgan Stanley Capital International (MSCI), Sustainalytics, and Bloomberg are examples of global ESG evaluation agencies.These 125 or so evaluation agencies rate companies by analyzing their respective data and evaluation criteria.Morgan Stanley Capital International is the most representative evaluation firm. Every year, MSCI assesses 35 key ESG issues for publicly traded companies around the world. There are seven levels of ESG ratings, ranging from AAA to CCC. Microsoft and NVIDIA are among the companies that received MSCI AAA ratings in 2020.Check out your favorite company's ESG rating on MSCI!https://www.msci.com/our-solutions/esg-investing/esg-ratings/esg-ratings-corporate-search-toolFind out your company's ESG score on Standard & Poor's (S&P Global)!https://www.spglobal.com/esg/scores/results?cid=4071032Different evaluation institutions may give companies different ESG grades. In the case of Tesla, it received an A grade from MSCI but was ranked in the bottom 10 percent by Just Capital. This is due to MSCI giving a large boost to Tesla because of its eco-friendly energy policy (E), whereas Just Capital rated Tesla as not responding well to customer input or safety issues (S).In any case, these institutions' ESG ratings of companies have a significant impact on investors. Companies with lower ratings are expected to have a more difficult time attracting investment than in the past. ㅡAll companies should strive for ESG!ㅡ "Everyone, ESG!" If you don't strive for it, you won't attract investors."Spreading the emphasis on ESG across companies and society was the theme of Larry Fink's annual letter in early 2020 as CEO of BlackRock, the world's largest asset management firm, with more than $7 trillion in assets under management. Every year, Founder Larry Fink sends letters to CEOs of investment firms, and the flow of money around the world will inevitably change as a result of the letters sent by the world's largest financial giant.He stated in January 2020, "We will be the first to look at climate change and sustainability in all future investment and acquisition decisions." He also stated, "I will not invest in coal developers or producers of fossil fuels." This letter quickly sparked the global ESG management craze. ㅡESG is already affecting Generation MZ consumersㅡESG is already affecting consumers. ESG encompasses more than just investment and management.It's become a part of daily routine.ESG is now a daily focus for the MZ generation in Korea, born after 1980. Sensitive to the crisis of climate change, the MZ generation pursues eco-friendly consumption, and keywords such as upcycling, zero-waste (no plastic), eco-friendly delivery (precycling), and refurbishment (resupplies) accurately describe the MZ generation's consumption behavior.Generation MZ does not buy things simply because they are inexpensive and of high quality. This is because the social value is important to the MZ generation. As a result, even if they are a little more expensive, they buy products from companies that take responsibility for social issues and engage in positive action.The meaning-out generation is the English translation of another name for Generation MZ. Meaning out is a combination of "coming out," which refers to revealing one's identity, and "meaning," which refers to expressing one's values or beliefs through consumption.Fairness and transparency are important to Generation MZ. They do not ignore unreasonable or unethical situations but instead advocate on a variety of social issues such as fairness, equality, the environment, safety, gender discrimination, and animal abuse.The MZ Generation is an activist. People who share similar values and interests can easily exchange ideas or organize joint activities via online and offline meetings. When it is disclosed that a good company is "rich," or that a company is not ethical or does not follow the law, they may launch a boycott via SNS (Simple Notification Service).Companies that are found to be engaging in illegal management activities or turning a blind eye to social problems may now face a boycott by the MZ generation.ㅡ[E]Patagonia, your very existence is ESG.ㅡ‘Nice Company’, ‘Eco-Friendly Company’, ‘The Earth's Watchman.’All of these titles refer to Patagonia, a US-based outdoor clothing company. Patagonia discontinued production of steel traction devices, which used to account for a significant portion of sales, after discovering that the equipment made for rock climbing cracked and damaged the rock walls.Instead, it is a well-known anecdote that Patagonia created aluminum equipment that did not harm the environment and as a result, achieved greater success.Even before the climate-change crisis became apparent, Patagonia was already equipped with an eco-conscious mindset. Patagonia donates 1 percent of its total sales to environmental organizations each year, referring to it as a "tax paid to the Earth."Patagonia has also advertised, "Please don't buy our clothes," claiming that farming to grow eco-friendly cotton and not consuming even eco-friendly products as much as possible is more environmentally friendly.Even in consumption, Patagonia's ESG management has captivated the MZ generation's pursuit of social meaning. As a result, Patagonia earned the reputation of being a "good company that cares about the environment," and it now ranks second in the US outdoor clothing market.ㅡ[S]The star of the show is...multi-ethnic and gender equalityNeflixㅡHave you noticed how many "female protagonists of color" there are in Netflix videos?This is due to Netflix's extra effort to earn an "S" in ESG. Netflix aims for gender equality in the main characters in movies and series as well as increasing the proportion of main characters of color. As a result, it has improved significantly on 19 of the 22 inclusion indicators of an S evaluation year after year.According to the 2019 Inequality in Popular Films report, Netflix has significantly more characters that are diverse in terms of gender, race, LGBTQ, and sexual orientation.Read more about the "Inequality in Popular Films" report:https://assets.uscannenberg.org/docs/aii-inequality-report-2019-09-03.pdfㅡ[G]Equal board of directorsTransparent decision-makingㅡIn comparison to the concerns about the environment and society, the governance aspect of ESG is a somewhat unfamiliar concept. Governance is defined as "any device that allows all stakeholders to make transparent decisions with responsibility within the constraints of given resources in order to achieve common goals." In most cases, it refers to the board of directors and corporate leadership. According to ESG experts, governance is the most important aspect of the elements: environment (E), society (S), and governance (G). This is due to the fact that all corporate activities for the environment (E) and society (S) ultimately stem from management's decision-making. Governance is ranked first among the four pillars of ESG by the World Economic Forum (WEF): governance, planet, people, and prosperity. Every year, ESG evaluation agencies add a new G index, with evaluation indicators such as "female director ratio," "CEO wage calculation method," "lobby funds," "bribery prevention measures," and "risk management" increasing. BlackRock stated in 2018 that it would not invest in companies with fewer than two female directors. Goldman Sachs stated that beginning in the second half of 2020 it will not engage in Initial Public Offering (IPO) work for companies that do not have directors who meet diversity standards. The gender balance of high-level officials also applies to senior executives, with many women breaking through the glass ceiling. Citigroup, one of the top ten US banks, appointed its first female CEO. Rashida Jones of MSNBC is the cable news industry's first black woman to be appointed president. Furthermore, the BLM (Black Lives Matter) movement is countering racial segregation and promoting diversity in the composition of Boards of Directors.ㅡLeap for a better societyㅡThe primary reason for people's interest in the environment, society, and governance factors is that consumers' and investors' values regarding the role of corporations have shifted. There is a growing expectation that companies that have caused major social problems should solve them through responsible management activities and take actions that have a positive impact on people’s lives, in addition to the prevailing values that focused only on corporate economic performance.ESG demonstrates that the era of so-called "good companies," in which companies that strive to protect the environment, fulfill their social responsibilities, and have transparent governance, has arrived. Unlike in the past, when companies were concerned only with how much money they made, the emphasis now is on "how" they made money. When we consider the environment (E), respond to various societal issues (S), and have a transparent governance structure (G), a more peaceful and sustainable society can develop. Will you engage in ESG investment, management, and consumption in order to create a more peaceful world?
Peace Issue The Scream of a Woman in Afghanistan
ㅡ "No one cares about us because we were born in Afghanistan." "We're going to die in history." - Afghan girl's despair at the Taliban rule - ㅡ “Is this really the 21st century?” People running desperately toward aircraft, people hanging upside down on the stairs in an attempt to board an aircraft, people clinging to an aircraft's wheels as it takes off...Crowds rushed into the Kabul Airport to flee the country after the Islamic armed group Taliban reclaimed control of Afghanistan. Afghans who had been going about their daily lives were thrown into battlefields rife with violence and fear.People all over the world witnessed how easily modern civilization could devolve into an anti-civilized and violent situation as they found the urgent scenes of the Afghan exodus more compelling than a movie.The two youths killed in a take-off crash of a transport plane were ordinary Afghan boys aged 16 and 17. They were brothers who supported their mother by selling fruits in the market in Kabul.Even now, 38 million Afghans fear having to choose a perilous escape route. And the reality imposed on the weak and women in need of protection among them is as perilous as standing on the edge of a knife. ㅡ Who Are the Taliban? ㅡ In Arabic, Taliban means "students." The Arabic word "Talib," which means "student," is combined with the Pashtun plural suffix "an"; in this case, "student" refers to a seminary student studying in a madrasa, a boarding school that teaches Islam. What caused a group of theological students studying God's teachings to become ruthless? To understand this, we need to turn the clock back 40 years and look at developments since then. When the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in 1979, the US-trained and supported mujahedin (warriors) to fight the Soviets. Theological students were trained to be anti-Soviet warriors in Pashtun, southern Afghanistan. The Taliban was founded in 1994 in Kandahar, Afghanistan's southernmost province. From 1996 to 2001, they controlled roughly three-quarters of Afghanistan under the leadership of Muhammad Omar. ㅡ The country with the worst women's rights record in the world ㅡWomen and minorities bore the brunt of the Taliban's atrocities during their five-year reign. During this time, Afghan women were unable to obtain an education, find work, or go out without male protection, and they were barred from holding any public office. In the face of the cruel reality of not being guaranteed basic human rights, women helplessly endured ruthless violence. ▲ World Economic Forum Report: 'Global Gender Gap Report 2021'https://www.weforum.org/reports/global-gender-gap-report-2021/digest Women in Afghanistan have the lowest social status in the world as of 2021. According to the World Economic Forum's Global Gender Gap Report 2021, Afghanistan ranked 156th out of 156 countries on the gender equality index. It wasn't always like this. In fact, in the 1960s and 1970s, Afghans enjoyed a free atmosphere within Islamic society, and women openly walked around Kabul in miniskirts. However, with the Taliban in power, women's human rights deteriorated to a pre-modern level. ▲ UNESCO Statistical Institute data: ‘Afghanistan's education registration rates, women (reference data in September 2020)’. https://data.worldbank.org/topic/education?locations=AFThe Taliban barred Afghan females from going out without being escorted by a male relative, going to school, or working. In UNESCO's "Afghanistan Education Institution Registration Rate, Women" graph, there is a break beginning in 1996. This means that education for females was halted entirely for a time. Since 2001, when the Taliban stepped down and a different Afghan government was established, the graph has risen dramatically, restoring female educational opportunities. In 2018, approximately 83 percent of school-age Afghan females were enrolled in educational institutions. However, due to the Taliban's reign, the graph is expected to plummet once more. Women were labeled as evil under common law. What is the Taliban's motivation for oppressing females? The foundations are based on Pashtunwali, Deovanni, and Sharia Law. 1. Pashtunwali Pashtunwali, the Taliban’s main pillar, is the code of honor of the Pashtun people that values the following virtues in a Pashtun man: hospitality, protection, honor, and bravery. The Taliban interprets Islamic law based on Pashtunwali, but the Pashtunwali view is overwhelmingly male-centered, with women regarded as evil beings. According to Pashtunwali, women are completely owned by men and are merely tools for second-generation production. 2. Deobandi Deobandi is an Islamic revivalist movement that occurred in India following British colonial rule. Afghanistan, as a neighboring country, was heavily influenced by the Deobandi concept, which completely excludes women from public spaces. 3. Sharia law Sharia law is a way of life that all Muslims must adhere to, including prayer, fasting, and charitable contributions to the poor. However, if Sharia law is interpreted punitively, it can be applied more brutally to women than any other legal system in the world. The following are the main characteristics of Sharia law: - Extreme punishment: Harsh physical punishments seen only in medieval society, such as amputating hands for theft and stoning women to death for adultery. - Extreme sexism: Sharia law has been revised by the Taliban to make women and non-Muslims increasingly vulnerable. As a result, even if a woman has been beaten or sexually assaulted, it is difficult for her to prove that she has been victimized. ㅡ Under Taliban rule A woman's life is miserable ㅡ ▲ Women wearing miniskirts and walking freely on the streets in the 1970s, and women covered their whole bodies with burka under the Taliban.According to a Human Rights Watch report published in 2020, brutal corporal punishment, including extreme oppression and the suppression of freedom of religion, expression, and education, was used on Afghan women during the Taliban's rule. Directly to Human Rights Watch: "Taleban-controlled Afghanistan's education, social restrictions, and justice (2020)". https://www.hrw.org/report/2020/06/30/you-have-no-right-complain/education-social-restrictions-and-justice-taliban-held A report on Afghanistan's Education, Social Restrictions, and Justice categorize the Taliban's oppression of Afghan women in four areas. 1. Education When the Taliban took power in 1996, laws prohibiting girls over the age of eight from attending school were enacted. As a result, in Kabul alone, 106,256 girls and 8,000 female college students were expelled, and 63 schools were closed. Women who desired an education had no choice but to attend underground schools in secret, risking execution if discovered. 2. Workplace The Taliban outlawed all employment of women on September 30, 1996. The number of women fired totaled 7,793. Many women who had had jobs were forced to beg for money on the streets. 3. Well-being When women were examined by a male doctor, the Taliban required them to be fully clothed. This hampered a full examination and treatment, even if a woman went to a small hospital with a female doctor. Furthermore, women's mental health was jeopardized by forced confinement and social isolation. A survey of 160 women revealed that 97 percent had severe depression and 71 percent had poor physical health. 4. Punishment Extreme violence was used as a form of punishment under Sharia law. Women who violated Sharia law faced public repercussions such as public beatings. | Cases of female punishment under the Taliban. ○ In October 1996, the tip of a woman's thumb was amputated because she had painted her nails. ○ In 1999, a mother with seven children was accused of murdering her husband at the Kabul Gaji Sports Stadium and was executed in front of 30,000 spectators; she was punished instead of her daughter, who was strongly suspected of the crime. ○ When a woman was discovered running an unofficial school in her apartment, the children were beaten and the women were thrown down the stairs. | Restrictions on women under the Taliban. ○ Women cannot walk down the street unless they are accompanied by a male blood relative or are wearing a burka. ○ Men should not have to hear the footsteps of a woman, so women should not wear high-heeled shoes. ○ Women should not speak loudly in public because strangers should not be able to hear the voices of a women. ○ To prevent women from being seen on the street, the windows on the ground and first floors of all residential buildings should be painted or shuttered. ○ All place names that contain the word 'female' should be modified; 'Women's Garden,' for example, was renamed 'Spring Garden.' ㅡ Struggling to be human How to eliminate violence against women (EVAW) ㅡFollowing the fall of the Taliban regime in 2001, various efforts were made in Afghanistan to promote women's rights. It was a difficult battle, but a number of non-governmental organizations and government agencies attempted to reform Afghan laws so they guarantee women's rights, which resulted in the enactment of the EVAW law (Law on the Elimination of Violence Against Women) in August 2008. This was the first law in Afghan history to criminalize violence against women, outlawing 22 violent acts against women, including rape, assault, forced marriage, prohibition on property acquisition, and denial of employment and educational opportunities. Go straight to Human Rights Watch: "Afghanistan's Enforcement of the Act on the Elimination of Violence against Women (2021).https://www.hrw.org/report/2021/08/05/i-thought-our-life-might-get-better/implementing-afghanistans-eliminationAlthough there were limitations, the human rights of women could be protected within the boundaries of the law. This was the fruit of Afghan women's painful efforts. Human Rights Watch evaluated the law on the Elimination of Violence against Women (EVAW) as "a slow but true change and an advocacy pin for the efforts of Afghan women's human rights groups to reform other laws." However, with the Taliban's resurgence, the law is on the verge of being scrapped.ㅡ Women's rights dated back 20 yearsin Afghanistan ㅡ The Taliban seized Kabul, Afghanistan's capital, on August 15, and reclaimed power 20 years after their earlier five-year regime. After the Afghan government surrendered without a fight, Afghan President Ashraf Ghani fled the country. The Taliban vowed to respect the human rights of women under Sharia law, but the Taliban brutally shot a woman who went out without a burka. A woman dressed in tight-fitting clothing was murdered for refusing to accompany a male relative.▲ A hair salon in Kabul where women's faces on the wall were severely damaged by spray. The politics of fear has begun. Twenty years of work for Afghan women's human rights came to naught in an instant. Burka prices are skyrocketing, and girls and women born after 2001 who had never lived under the Taliban's rule find this reality unfamiliar and frightening. The world is watching with bated breath as courageous Afghan women take to the streets to defend human rights at the risk of their lives. The risk is the fact that cruel triggers can be pulled on these women at any time.▲ On August 17, 2021, Afghan women protesting in front of Taliban soldiers demanding women's human rights. The international community has urged the Taliban to protect its citizens’ human rights. The United Nations Secretary-General for Human Rights, Michelle Bachelet, has urged Taliban leaders to respect the rights of Afghans. She specifically warned them not to cross the fundamental red line of rights for women and girls. ㅡ How to Help Afghan Womenㅡ What can we do to help the Afghan women who are terrified? Dr. Sakena Yacoobi, the mother of refugee education in Afghanistan and the winner of the 2nd Sunhak Peace Prize, is desperately appealing to the world for interest and relief in Afghanistan. "Our democracy could have imploded right now. Anomalies, on the other hand, do not go away so easily. Even the wind's whispers cannot be killed. The Taliban will not be able to derail their dreams. Even if it takes longer than we anticipated, we will prevail." - After returning to power, Dr. Sakena Yacoobi sent a letter to partners around the world. (Sakena Yacoobi's Special Letter: http://www.sunhakpeaceprize.org/en/news/notice.php?bgu=view&idx=478)Dr. Sakena Yacoobi, who risked her life to run an underground school for girls under the Taliban in the late 1990s, founded the Afghan Institute of Learning (AIL) in 1995 and has been providing education and vocational training to thousands of refugees in order to improve Muslim women's rights and social status. The Afghans will eventually return to a peaceful life, as Dr. Yacoobi predicted. Even in the midst of this ruthless violence, there are people with ideals and beliefs that Afghanistan will rise again one day. Everyone's attention and solidarity are urgently needed so that women and children in Afghanistan who have been harmed by the harsh reality do not abandon the "heart of hope." | How to help Afghanistan Make a contribution to the Afghan Learning Institute (AIL) https://www.paypal.com/donate/?hosted_button_id=U342N8B8RBHPG<clid=40ea689c-0b50-44fc-845c-5c69e93a8ba2https://www.afghaninstituteoflearning.org/how-to-donate.html For a United Nations peacekeeping force https://peacekeeping.un.org/en/contact The International Committee of the Red Cross https://www.icrc.org/en/contact
Peace Issue Net Zero: The only way earth can survive
ㅡRed Flag for Mother Earth’s Health!Abnormal Temperature Rise ㅡThe red flag is raised for the health of Mother Earth these days. Mother Earth, who was afraid of the constant increase in temperature, went to the IPCC (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change) and requested a diagnosis and prescription.● Mother Earth: My temperature is constantly increasing. I’m so afraid because heatwaves, wildfires, droughts, and floods are occurring all over due to the rise in temperature. Every day I am afraid of what will happen tomorrow, and it is even hard to breathe. Why is this happening to me?● IPCC: Mother Earth’s temperature has risen by about 1℃ compared to the pre-industrial era. If this continues, life will be in danger. Let’s take a closer look.ㅡIPCC’s DiagnosisThe main cause if rising temperature rise: Carbon dioxide ㅡ● Mother Earth: Actually, since industrialization began, I have been living an increasingly prosperous and convenient life, something I never experienced before. Those were very pleasant days. Was poison hiding in those great times? ● IPCC: Now, let me explain by drawing a graph.The increase in Mother Earth’s temperature is due to accumulated greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide. A huge amount of carbon dioxide has been emitted since the Industrial Revolution began in the 1800s. For about 100 years since the early 1800s, carbon dioxide was mainly generated by coal, and for about 100 years since the early 1900s, it was primarily generated from petroleum.The amount of carbon dioxide emitted so far has reached 45,873,850,000t (The World Bank, 2018). Such poison has been gradually accumulating in Mother Earth.The current surface temperature of the Earth has increased by about 1.09℃ compared to 1850~1900. This is a very, very serious situation.Direct link to IPCC 2021 ‘6th Assessment Report’ Summary: https://www.ipcc.ch/report/ar6/wg1/downloads/report/IPCC_AR6_WGI_Full_Report.pdf IPCC published its 6th Assessment Report on August 9, 2021. The report emphasizes that it is clear that climate change due to global warming is caused by human influence. The graph shows the trend of global surface temperature changes (black line) over the past 170 years divided into human activity + natural factors (brown line) and natural factors only (green line).The green line shows the change in surface temperature assuming that only natural factors were present, such as the sun and volcanoes, and the brown line shows the combined impact of human and natural factors on the average annual surface temperature. Isn’t the brown line much steeper? You can notice that the increase in surface temperature is much greater when human influences were added.What stands out in the report is the unprecedented increase in greenhouse gas concentrations and cumulative carbon dioxide emissions. As of 2019, carbon dioxide was measured at 410 ppm, methane at 1866 ppb, and nitrous oxide at 332 ppb, but before the industrial revolution, the Earth’s carbon dioxide concentration was 280 ppm. In particular, the concentration of carbon dioxide was at a level unprecedented in the past 2 million years.ㅡDark Future of Mother Earth1.5~2℃ Rise in Temperature by 2050 ㅡ● Mother Earth: How long can I live? I want to return to health as soon as possible. I want to get back to normal life as soon as possible, free from heatwaves, wildfires, droughts, and floods. ● IPCC: If conditions continue, the average temperature will rise by 1.5℃ by 2050 compared to the pre-industrial era. The symptoms will appear much more often and be more serious than they do now. If the average temperature rises to 2℃, the decline in the health of Mother Earth will be irreversible, and if it rises to 6℃, life on Mother Earth cannot continue. If the global temperature rises by 1.5℃ compared to the pre-industrial era, the risks to the ecosystem and human life are likely irreversible. Therefore, 1.5~2℃ is called the climate defense line, and the IPCC predicts that the global temperature will reach this climate defense line in 2050.The report predicts that 95 percent of life on Earth will become extinct when the global average temperature rises by 6℃ because methane hydrates will be released in large quantities. ㅡIPCC’s PrescriptionExtreme cut on carbon emissionsby 2050! ㅡ● Mother Earth: How much carbon should I lose to remain alive?● IPCC: Let me talk straight. Zero carbon emissions need to be achieved by 2050. Initially, by 2030 carbon dioxide emission needs to be reduced by at least 45 percent, compared to 2010 levels, and carbon neutrality, or net carbon emission of 0, achieved by 2050. To achieve this requires great determination.Direct link to Global Warming of 1.5℃ Special Report (2018): https://www.ipcc.ch/sr15/download/ In conclusion, IPCC’s 1.5℃ ‘Special Report’ states that all countries must achieve net-zero by 2050 in order to limit the increase in global average temperature to 1.5℃ or less compared to the pre-industrial levels.● Carbon Neutral refers to the activities that reduce the net emission of carbon dioxide (one of six greenhouse gases) to zero. In other words, carbon neutrality is achieved when the emission of carbon dioxide equals the absorption of carbon dioxide added by human activities. ● Net-zero refers to the activities that reduce the net emission of all six greenhouse gases to zero. Therefore, net-zero is more difficult to achieve than carbon neutrality. This is also called Climate Neutral.ㅡMain Point to Achieve Net-Zero by 2050‘Green Energy’ ㅡ● Mother Earth: We have been relying on fossil fuels for 200 years, so can we achieve net-zero by 2050? ● IPCC: If we compare this to weight loss, no matter what type of weight loss you aim to achieve, you are aware that ultimately you have to change your eating habits, right? Reducing greenhouse gases, especially carbon dioxide, requires a major transition in energy consumption. It means cutting down on the use of fossil fuels and changing the diet to green energy (solar, wind, hydro). Major Transition to Green EnergyThe World Resources Institute (WRI) has suggested ten strategies for achieving net-zero. These include reducing coal power step by step, investing in clean energy and improving energy efficiency, renovating buildings, decarbonizing materials, shifting to eco-friendly vehicles, increasing the use of public transportation, decarbonizing airplanes, and ships, restoring forests, reducing food waste and garbage, and reducing meat consumption and increasing vegetable consumption. Direct link to World Resources Institute’s (WRI) solution to achieve Net-Zero:https://www.wri.org/insights/net-zero-ghg-emissions-questions-answered Especially, current internal combustion engines that emit a large quantity of greenhouse gases are expected to be replaced with eco-friendly, pollution-free vehicles, such as electric or hybrid vehicles in the near future. Europe, the world’s largest electric vehicle market, announced a proposal for carbon emission reduction in July 2021, including the introduction of a Carbon Border Tax and a ban on sales of vehicles with internal combustion engines. Under the goal of reducing by 2030 net greenhouse gas emissions by 55 percent compared to 1990 levels, sales of new vehicles with gasoline or diesel engines will be banned in Europe by 2035. New energy vehicles (NEV) are expected to make up over 35 percent of new vehicle sales in China in 2025.The United States has announced plans for half of all new cars sold in the US to be eco-friendly by 2030.ㅡ1.5℃ Rise Could Happen by 2040Carbon Reduction Is NecessaryㅡCurrently, global temperatures are rising much faster than predicted. IPCC’s 6th Assessment Report (2021) warns that if the current level of greenhouse gas emission continues, the global temperature is highly likely to increase by 1.5 degrees by 2040, which is within 20 years.Therefore, we are in an urgent situation that may require pushing carbon neutrality ahead to 2040. Countries and corporations should accelerate their efforts to reduce carbon emissions. It is also time for individuals to set a daily carbon reduction goal for the health of the planet. Every big change starts with a small effort!Make today day 1 of carbon-cutting! Five practical methods to cut carbon use:1. No meat Monday: each person who goes vegan for one day a week has the same effect as planting 15 pine trees that are 30 years old!2. Remove unnecessary stuff from the car trunk: 2.3 kg reduction per 1 liter of gasoline3. Use a personal water bottle: about 10 kg reduction per person per year (using 2 paper cups per day X 1 year = 8 kg of carbon)4. Use second-hand products: 33 kg reduction per pair of jeans 5. Receive receipts digitally: 3 g reduction per sheet
Announcement The Interviews with Indonesian winners of the ‘2021 Peace Motion Graphics Contest’
The Interviews with Indonesian winners of the ‘2021 Piece Motion Graphics Contest’ were introduced on the ‘Korea Culture Sharing Website’, which is operated by the depatment of Korean Culture and Information Service, of the Korean government. The lively reflections of the winners of the ‘2021 Peace Motion Graphics Contest’ will be presented to young people around the world who love Korean culture.Link to the interview:https://www.korea.net/TalkTalkKorea/English/community/community/CMN0000012884
Announcement A Letter from Afghanistan
While the world is in shock from the Islamic fundamentalist group, Taliban, entering Kabul, a letter from Sakena Yacoobi, an Afghan woman educator and the second Sunhak Peace Prize Laureate, arrived at the Sunhak Peace Prize Secretariat on the 17th.The open letter, 'Afghanistan has fallen- What you can do to help,' contains the urgent voice of Dr. Yacoobi, calling for the protection of Afghan women and children from this crisis.As the Afghan Institute of Learning (AIL) founder and CEO, Dr. Yacoobi continues to promote women's rights and education through the institute even during this desperate situation. In addition, she is proposing a way for people worldwide to join the Afghan refugee relief effort in solidarity with AIL.Link to Afghan Learning Institute: https://www.afghaninstituteoflearning.org/Dr. Yacoobi has sent this letter to many colleagues and organizations who have been promoting the rights of Afghan women. Former U.S. President George W. Bush released a statement calling for Afghan refugee relief on the 17th in Newsweek, citing Sakena Yacoobi's desperate letter at the end.Link to the full text of former U.S. President George W. Bush's statement calling for relief in Afghanistan: https://www.newsweek.com/george-bush-urges-afghanistan-refugees-helped-without-delay-full-statement-1619960The Sunhak Peace Prize Secretariat shares Dr. Yacoobi's message hoping that people worldwide will help the Afghan refugees. This is one of the most difficult letters I have ever written. After twenty years, our government collapsed with almost no resistance. The constitution we worked so hard for, the rights our women sacrificed so much to gain, thrown out the window like scraps for the dogs. Our military and the Ghani government fled, leaving our women and children to face the Taliban with no support. The world watched it happen, without care. We begged, screaming for help. So, now we see peace is again made on the back of women and children. The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan has fallen, and Kabul is in complete chaos. My office and staff are unharmed, for which we thank God. The nation of Afghanistan is in turmoil. My schools are still running as of now. We have been instructed that we can continue as long as we separate boys and girls. The day the Taliban took Kandahar, they planted three flags in the courtyard. My schools must be important, as they visited the very first day the Taliban took control. Our Women Learning Centers remain open as they primarily serve women. As of now, my staff is unharmed. We hope and pray this remains true. We have been told that Radio and TV Meraj are not to operate until we are given notice; we will wait for that instruction. We hope and pray that the Taliban wasn't lying when they told the world they did not intend to shut the schools, but our universities have already closed their doors to women and told them to go home. Burqa sales have tripled, as have the prices to purchase them. Women who lived through the Taliban before now go to purchase these garments, while the daughters raised under the American occupation throw them in their mothers' faces, refusing to wear them. We are a nation at a crossroads, but AIL will do what AIL has always done. We will continue to educate and provide a safe space for children and women. We will continue to offer food, job training, and medical care for as long as we can remain in our facilities. When it is no longer possible to stay in those buildings, we will find new buildings and work there. Wherever we have schools now, we will have schools next week, next month, or next year. AIL was started in secret, and it will continue in secret if it must. While we are afraid, we will not be defeated. Our mission remains the same. We will set up schools in every province, now that the worst has come. We know what to expect. We know the Taliban very well. There is no question of how they operate or what they expect. We know how to manage them, and we will act accordingly. Letter after letter, phone call after phone call, came in this weekend asking how you can help. We need humanitarian supplies. The refugee situation we updated you with last week and the week before has only deteriorated. We have 300,000 internal refugees and 80,000 children who are without shelter and food. Where we were short of supplies, now we are out. Those in need are overwhelming us. Aid agencies have left with the Americans. AIL will not be leaving, so we will expand our facilities to help those who lost everything, including their homes, in the fighting. We need dry milk, clothes, school supplies, medicine, hygiene items, and since Covid is still present, soap and sanitizers are critical. Many of you have asked what else you can do, and to that, I say to contact the UN and government officials and tell them you want them to use every possible tool they have to protect our women and girls through diplomatic means. Sanction Pakistan for their invasion of my country, and pray for the safety of my people. Our democracy may have fallen for now. Ideas do not disappear so easily. One cannot kill whispers on the wind. The Taliban cannot crush a dream. We will prevail, even if it takes longer than we wanted it to. Much love to you all,Dr. Sakena YacoobiHow you can help AfghanistanDonate to AILhttps://www.afghaninstituteoflearning.org/how-to-donate.htmlEmail the White Househttps://www.whitehouse.gov/contact/Email Number 10 Downing Streethttps://email.number10.gov.uk/Request Peacekeepershttps://peacekeeping.un.org/en/contactInternational Committee of the Red Crosshttps://www.icrc.org/en/contact
Announcement ‘Maestro of humanity’: 2017 Sunhak Peace Prize Laureate Gino Strada dies at 73
Beloved and respected by humanitarians around the world,Dr. Gino Strada died on August 13 at the age of 73.He was the founder of the medical-aid NGO, EMERGENCY. As a surgeon, he devoted his life to healing those in need. He saw healthcare as a human right.In 2017 Dr. Strada was awarded the Sunhak Peace Prize in recognition of his lifelong humanitarian work, saving millions of people suffering in conflict areas around the world.EMERGENCY has treated over 11 million people in 19 countries since 1994.It currently operates in Afghanistan, Eritrea, Iraq, Italy, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Uganda, and Yemen.His commitment to healing was unchanging and he spoke out passionately on behalf of those who suffer, saying, "If any human being is suffering at this moment, if they are ill or hungry, this regards all of us,because ignoring a person's suffering is always an act of violence and one of the most cowardly".His noble love of humanity will remain a warm seed in our hearts. His life has been a blessing to this world.We love you Gino.
Peace Issue Solution for the ‘Three planetary crises’
ㅡSolution for the ‘Three planetary crises’ ㅡ"Fundamentally, the pandemic is a warning from the planet that unless we change our ways, much worse lies in store. It is a warning that we must finally get on top of the three planetary crises that threaten our collective future: the climate crisis, the biodiversity and nature crisis, and the pollution and waste crisis...Without strong science that travels, we cannot influence unsustainable consumption and production patterns that underpin the three planetary crises."António Guterres, UN Secretary-General What do you think is the key to overcoming the pandemic? Are masks, hand sanitizers, vaccines, and treatments enough? The answer is no! Scientists warn that if humanity does not address the root cause, another pandemic could follow after COVID-19.It was our 'normal' that led us to the pandemic. The Pandemic began when the humans destroyed the natural habitat of the wild animals, which led to these animals invading the habitat of the humans. If we do not change our ‘normal’ that destroys nature, the new pandemic will continue to attack humanity.This epidemic is a warning that humanity must change the path they have created by 180 degrees. It is a warning that the three planetary crises, the climate crisis, the biodiversity and nature crisis, and the pollution and waste crisis, will threaten our collective future.On April 27th, the UN Environment Management Group (EMG) held an online conference on the 'Defining Green Recovery.' At this conference, there was a heated discussion of using 'green recovery' to overcome COVID-19, which brought instability in the life and economy of the world. At this conference, the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP) released a report titled Making Peace with Nature, which presented a blueprint for the scientific foundation for reporting the global environment. The below are the key points from this conferenceClick the link to download the ‘Making Peace with Nature’ report.Making Peace With Nature | UNEP - UN Environment ProgrammeㅡCrisis 1: Climate Changeㅡ△ Samburu, Kenya, January 2020: Due to global warming, the sudden growth of the grasshopper population is plaguing herds of African elephants.Global warming is the biggest disaster in human history. The effects of global warming are easy to see around us. The 2020 Atlantic Hurricane, with 30 typhoons, was the most severe hurricane ever recorded. Currently, 2 billion people live under the stress of water scarcity. Wildfires, floods, and droughts are so common today that they are no longer the big news.Last year, a swarm of grasshoppers in Africa crossed the Red Sea and struck Iran and Pakistan in the Middle East, and then advanced to the grain fields of South America such as Paraguay, Argentina, and Brazil, causing the worst damage to farms in 23 countries in 70 years.Drinking water pollution due to climate change is also a difficult situation. An additional 1.8 million people are expected to die from contaminated water, and there are many displaced people due to this issue, of which women account for 80%.The recent global warming is heading towards a more complex situation. Despite the decrease in carbon dioxide emissions due to the COVID-19 pandemic, global warming continues and is expected to increase by 3 degrees Celsius compared to pre-industrialization within the 21st century.ㅡCrisis 2: Biodiversity and NatureㅡThe next thing that threatens human existence is biodiversity and nature crises.Biodiversity is declining at an alarming rate. Of 7.8 million species, more than 1 million plants and animals are projected to become extinct each year. Humans have altered 75% of the terrestrial surface and 66% of the marine area.Decreased biodiversity doesn't just mean pretty grass and butterflies are gone. It is a complex problem that turns the entire ecosystem upside down. When biodiversity declines, the foundations of what makes well-being possible, such as food, water, temperature control, economic growth, etc., are shaken while degrading ecosystems.ㅡCrisis 3: Pollution and WasteㅡPollution and waste are the 'toxic traces' we have left as we grow our economy.Every year, pollution causes millions of premature deaths. Due to climate change and ecosystem destruction, pollution-related diseases are expected to increase significantly, and approximately 9 million humans are expected to die prematurely every year.About a third of all rivers in Latin America, Africa, and Asia suffer from severe pollution. Every year we throw away 50 million tons of e-waste, roughly equal to the weight of all commercial airliners ever made.ㅡPeace with Nature is the defining task of the 21st CenturyㅡWe already knew about all these issues. But the unfortunate fact is that we didn't act enough to solve the problem. We have already set the international agreement, such as the Sustainable Development Goals, the Paris Agreement, and the globally agreed goals on biodiversity; however, it was not implemented properly. Now, the age of promise must change into an age of action. Achieving peace with nature is a decisive task in the 21st century. How can this be achieved? There is a need for a transition to a more sustainable pattern. If humanity has been living in an unsustainable production and consumption system, it is time to switch to a sustainable production and consumption system.ㅡ1st point to address the planetary crises: economy and business.ㅡHave you ever abandoned a product that is still usable today and bought a new, more attractive version of the product?That is unsustainable consumption and the main culprit that makes the planet sick. In line with the pace of change in modern society, companies are constantly releasing upgraded versions of products, and many people do not hesitate to discard old items to buy new ones. Eventually, this leads to environmental destruction.Now, there is a desperate need for a new economy and business that will make humanity prosper without compromising the value of nature. Companies should operate the production process in consideration of various factors such as pursuing high energy efficiency, eliminating the use of toxic chemicals, extending the life of products, improving product recyclability, reducing the number of harmful substances emitted during disposal, and respecting workers.Biodiversity and natural restoration can also be substantial economic opportunities. Overall, the business opportunity to transform food, land, and ocean use systems is said to generate additional revenues or cost savings of $3.6 trillion by 2030 while creating 191 million new jobs.ㅡ2nd point to address the planetary crises: governanceㅡFive years ago, countries signed the historic Paris Agreement to limit global warming this century to below 2 degrees Celsius and pursue 1.5 degrees. What is the outcome after five years? Greenhouse gas emissions have temporarily decreased due to the economic downturn caused by the pandemic, but there is no significant difference in long-term temperature. To achieve the 2 degrees Celsius target, a challenge remains to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by a third by 2030.The same goes for biodiversity. Governments in each country pledged in 2010 to achieve their biodiversity targets by 2020. However, like the Paris Agreement, it was not implemented as well. Each country needs to develop concrete implementation plans and take international action before it's too late.In addition to fulfilling the agreed international commitments, we must invest in a 'green recovery' to overcome the pandemic. According to a recent report published by UNEP, if green recovery funds are wisely invested in technological innovations such as renewable energy, carbon dioxide emissions could be reduced by 25% in 2030.ㅡ3rd point to address the planetary crises: personal responsibilityㅡYour little choice today can heal the planet."The fact is that if you live in the developed world, you impact planetary health," said the UNEP Executive Director, Inger Anderson, as she pointed out that about two-thirds of the world's carbon dioxide emissions are linked to private households.Most of us already know what we need to do to save our planet. There are answers to trivial everyday life, from reducing disposable plastics to lessening food waste to save energy. We need to change our minds so that our little choices become sustainable choices.The responsibility lies with all of us. Two-thirds of all greenhouse gas emissions are related to private households, and the planet is at risk as demand for food and materials increases. Right now we require 1.6 Earths to maintain the current population and living standards, both of which are rising.ㅡBuilding a peaceful and inclusive relationship with natureㅡTo overcome the crisis on our planet, all of humanity must change the way we think about the environment. A peaceful yet inclusive relationship between mankind and nature must be reestablished.Changing our mindset is very difficult. But we can and must do it. COVID-19 has shown how fast we can change our habits when we have to. Bold leadership, scientific innovation, dedicated global fundraising, and lifestyle changes have brought us to the point of developing a vaccine and breaking out of the pandemic in a year.Now we have to change the way we think about nature. Not forgetting that the cause of the pandemic was the 'destruction of nature,' a shift in the mindset of peaceful and inclusive perception of nature is necessary. Humanity must overcome the pandemic's wounds with a 'green recovery' and once again create bold leadership, scientific innovation, global fundraising, and lifestyle changes.
Peace Issue Disaster drives inequality, inequality prevents peace
△ Delhi, India, May 2020. Children from slums in India await a charity food distribution.Disasters accelerate inequality. The adverse conditions facing the vulnerable are exacerbated by disasters, making it harder to overcome those conditions. This is the case for the COVID-19 pandemic. The pandemic had a significant impact worldwide, but its damage is more lethal to the poor.According to the 2020 UNDP report, the world is experiencing a decline in education, health, and living standards for the first time since 1990. All these declines began with the global epidemic of COVID-19 and are widely observed in all world regions. The economic contraction caused by the quarantine measures severely hit the lives of vulnerable groups such as residents of underdeveloped countries, low-income groups, women, and the disabled.UN Secretary-General Antonius Guterchs criticized the reality of global inequality exacerbated by COVID-19:"COVID-19 has been likened to an x-ray, revealing fractures in the fragile skeleton of the societies we have built. It is exposing fallacies and falsehoods everywhere.The lie that free markets can deliver healthcare for all; The fiction that unpaid care work is not work; The delusion that we live in a post-racist world; The myth that we are all in the same boat. While we are all floating on the same sea, it’s clear that some are in superyachts, while others are clinging to the drifting debris."ㅡThe face of global inequality revealed by Covid 19ㅡAs the pandemic is prolonged, inequality in global income and assets is intensifying. The government's fiscal rescue packages support the wealthy industries, while the livelihood of the vulnerable, who have lost their job due to the blockade, is worsening.In February 2021, Oxfam, an international aid organization, pointed out in a report called The Inequality Virus that “the world is witnessing the largest increase in inequality in history due to COVID-19”.○ COVID-19 is an inequality virus: The rich and middle class were able to choose various responses to overcome the epidemic, but many of the poor and the vulnerable had to face a harsh reality with no options. According to The Inequality Virus Report, the top 1,000 billionaires, dubbed ‘Mega-Rich,’ took only nine months to recover their wealth to their pre-pandemic highs. In contrast, the world's poorest people will take more than ten years to recover.○ Growing Poverty from COVID-19: Due to COVID-19, about 90 million people in low-income countries around the world are at risk of falling into poverty (International Monetary Fund report). If the inequality caused by the pandemic continues to the current level, it is predicted that the world's poor population will increase by about 500 million by 2030 (World Bank WB report).○ Polarization Accelerated by Digitization and Automation: The COVID-19 contributes to the growing inequality, as the digital transformation of production and operations is accelerating. Increased automation and telecommuting further threaten the labor market of low-skilled, underpaid workers. The problem is, as the ‘new normal’ of the COVID-19 era, such as working from home, is settled, jobs for low-skilled workers are expected to decrease significantly even after the pandemic.ㅡInequality leads to angerAnger leads to social anxiety ㅡ“This is not just a protest against an increase in subway fares, it is an expression of years of repression, primarily targeting the poorest people.”△ Bogota, Colombia, May 2021: The protests that began in opposition to the Colombian government's tax reform proposal have continued despite President Iván Duque's decision to withdraw the reform bill.From the spark of anger and discontent formed over poverty and inequality on May 10, 2021, protests continue to spread in Columbia. The start of the protest was the government's tax reform plan. The government proposed a tax reform plan to increase the tax burden from those with a monthly salary of about $650 per month, only three times the minimum wage, which created a backlash from the middle and low-income class. Protesters were angered that the government was only targeting the middle and low-income citizens rather than the wealthy. The protest was also the repressed anger over poverty and inequality that COVID-19 has deepened.In 2019, massive protests took place in Ecuador, Chile, Lebanon, and Spain as well. The causes, methods, and goals are all different, but the common thing that drives people into the streets is inequality; many protesters have long been isolated from the state's wealth.Protests in Ecuador began when the government announced it would abolish fuel subsidies, and in Chile, higher bus and subway fares sparked protests. Chile is one of the wealthiest countries in Latin America, but it is also the most unequal. Chile has the lowest income equality among the 36 member states of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).On the day when protesters and security forces clashed in Chile, Chilean President Sebastián Piñera was spotted eating in a high-end Italian restaurant, which angered the civilian.A student at the protest told the media that "This is not just a protest against an increase in subway fares, it is an expression of years of repression, primarily targeting the poorest people."The situation in Chile, which has spread to anti-government protests, is an important event that shows the growing gap between the rich and the poor and economic inequality. Not only in Chile, but around the world, the gap between the rich and the poor has become a spark that arouses social unrest.ㅡOnly the wealth of the rich continues to grow.ㅡOxfam International, which aids over 100 countries worldwide, publishes an inequality report every year at the Davos World Economic Forum, which brings together the world's wealthiest and most influential people.In a January 2020 report, Oxfam diagnosed global inequality as 'out of control' due to the biased economic system that excludes women while billionaires accumulate more wealth. Click the link below to download the Oxfam Inequality Report.https://oxfamilibrary.openrepository.com/bitstream/handle/10546/620928/bp-time-to-care-inequality-200120-en.pdfThe Oxfam report released in 2020 accused the government of exacerbating inequality by not securing sufficient resources for public services such as healthcare and education, imposing low taxes on businesses and the wealthy, and failing to prevent tax evasion adequately.○ The wealth of the top 1% billionaires, twice the wealth of 6.9 billion people: The world's richest 1% has more than twice the wealth of the 6.9 billion people.○ The top 1% of billionaires’ consistently accruing wealth: In 1980, the wealthiest 1% of the global village accounted for 16% of global income, and the bottom 50% accounted for 8%. In 2016, the top 1% accounted for 22% of global income, and the bottom 50% accounted for 10%. If the wealth trend accelerates, the top 1%'s income share is expected to increase by nearly 39% by 2050.○ Half of the world's population lives on less than 5 dollars and 50 cents per day: 3.4 billion people, half of the world's population, live on less than 5 dollars and 50 cents per day.○ The mortality rate before age 5 in the poorest countries, three times the mortality rate before age 5 in rich countries: The mortality rate of children before the age of 5 in the world's poorest countries (bottom 20%) is three times the mortality rate for children before age 5 in the world's wealthiest countries (top 5%).○ Women's income is 1/2 of men's income: Up to 30% of the global income inequality index comes from inequality between women and men. Women are earning less than 50% of the median income than men (ranking all households in a country in order of income and then making exactly the middle household as median income).○ Women's unpaid housework hours are twice as much as men's: Worldwide, women spend twice as much time on unpaid domestic work than men. The economic value of women's unpaid domestic work is $1.08 trillion per year. This is a major contributor to women's precarious jobs and low-income levels.ㅡWhy does inequality arise?ㅡPoverty can result from an individual's lack of competence, but it is also the result of social, political, and structural inequality, such as inadequate welfare systems, corruption, and unequal trade structures. Therefore, a holistic approach from a political and social context and a global perspective must be made to solve global inequality.○ Unstable Politics: War destroys all infrastructure in the country, causes a shortage of labor, and slows investment and business activities if it persists. In addition, when the government cannot fulfill its role due to political conflict, the country faces financial difficulties from reduced domestic and foreign investment and various economic activities.In countries with high levels of corruption and crime, finances are not properly spent on public infrastructure, education, medical care, pensions, and social security, resulting in corruption. Corruption leads ○ to Corruption and Lack of Welfare: a deterioration in the quality of life of the people, loss of the driving force for economic development, and eventually leads to poverty.○ Poor economic structure: The economic structure of rich countries is based on industries that can generate high profits. For example, developed countries in the United States and Europe are based on the IT industry or the patented pharmaceutical industry. On the other hand, poorer countries depend on the agricultural economy, making it difficult to generate high profits compared to its investment.○ Low level of education: When countries with low levels of education are immersed in primary industries, advanced countries equipped with labor and skills through high-level education stand out in capital-intensive fields, and the economic gap between these two groups is widened. Without universal and systematic education, technological development and creative economic activities cannot be induced.ㅡThe key to resolving inequality isfairness and inclusionㅡThe wealth we enjoy comes from someone who worked hard somewhere. Therefore, everyone who participates in the economic system must be inclusive.To become a better world, human-centered logic, rather than the logic of capital, should be the basis of the economy. If the profits of business and society are more evenly distributed to all citizens and a sustainable working environment is created, will inequality not be resolved little by little?○ Fair and inclusive policy: Global poverty has decreased due to the international community's efforts, but the gap between rich and poor has widened. Rather than focusing solely on economic growth, fair and inclusive policies such as education and health care for everyone needs to develop.○ Fair tax system: Active taxation of the wealthiest is the essential solution to addressing economic inequality. Increasing the tax rate mainly to the rich, such as progressive income tax and inheritance tax, is critical in addressing inequality. ○ Basic Income guarantee: As the economic gap widens, labor productivity and consumption demand of the low-income class decline. This, in turn, leads to a hindrance to economic growth in a society. In order to provide a fair and inclusive life, a policy is required to guarantee the basic income of low-income families and introduce the maximum wage system (a system that designates the upper limit to how much a high-income individual can earn).
Press Release “The Sunhak Peace Prize Committee is accepting nominations for the 5th Sunhak Peace Prize”
● Nominations may be submitted up until July 31, 2021The Sunhak Peace Prize honors distinguished individuals or organizations that have contributed significantly to peace and to the welfare of future generations. In particular, the Committee considers three core areas of accomplishment in the evaluation of candidates: Sustainable Human Development, Conflict Resolution, and Ecological Conservation. Sunhak laureates are selected biannually by an international committee, and receive an award in the amount of $1,000,000. Dr. Hak Ja Han Moon founded the Sunhak Peace Prize to continue the legacy and vision of her late husband, Rev. Dr. Sun Myung Moon, who founded the Universal Peace Federation and dedicated his life to the promotion of peace, seeking to build a world where all people live together in harmony. The inaugural award was given in 2015. The 5th Award Ceremony will take place in 2022. Criteria for Evaluation of Nominees: - Contributions to the areas such as sustainable human development, conflict resolution, or ecological conservation - Improving the quality of life of people from diverse nations, races, religions and cultures for the sake of peace Nominators are to complete the candidate nomination form, along with relevant supporting material, detailing the candidate's achievements. The nomination must be submitted to the Sunhak Peace Prize Secretariat by July 31, 2021. The prize committee will decide on the final Sunhak Peace Prize Laureate(s) in December 2021. The official announcement will be made soon thereafter. The Award Ceremony will be held in April 2022, in South Korea. The nomination form can be downloaded from the official website (sunhakpeaceprize.org). The first Sunhak Peace Prize in 2015 was awarded to Mr. Anote Tong, former President of Kiribati, for his efforts to raise awareness of climate change and rising sea levels; and, Dr. Modadugu Vijay Gupta, who increased the productivity of fisheries through the development of aquaculture methods. The second award in 2017, which focused on the global refugee crisis, was given to Italian surgeon Dr. Gino Strada, and to educator Dr. Sakena Yacoobi. The laureates of the third award in 2019, which focused on peace and development in Africa, were Dr. Akinwumi Adesina, President of the African Development Bank, and Waris Dirie, founder of Desert Flower Foundation. The 2020 Sunhak Peace Prize was awarded to President Macky Sall of the Republic of Senegal and Bishop Munib A. Younan, the International Honorary President of Religions for Peace. Marking the centenary of the Rev. Sun Myung Moon, a special Founders' Centenary Award was presented to former UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon. Contact: Sunhak Peace Prize Committee Secretariat firstname.lastname@example.org TEL: +82-2-3278-5158, FAX: +82-02-3278-5198 Source: The Sunhak Peace Prize Committee
Peace Issue 135.6 years. The time it takes to reach equality between men and women.
ㅡ135.6 years. The time it takes to reach equality between men and women.ㅡ How big is the gap between the positions of men and women? According to the “Global Gender Gap Report 2021” report released by the World Economy Forum (WEF) in March, it will take 135.6 years to become a world where men and women are equal.The same report in 2019 predicted that it would take about 95 years if it had followed the same trend from then, but 36 more years were added to the current prediction due to the pandemic. In other words, the pandemic has delayed the progression of women obtaining their rights by a few decades. The 'Global Gender Gap Report,’ released every year at the World Economic Forum, is a detailed analysis of gender gaps in politics, economy, education, and health in 156 countries worldwide, and is an important criterion for understanding the degree of gender inequality in each country.ㅡGreater gender inequality with pandemicㅡ Why did the pandemic have a bigger impact on women? The reason is that the areas where women work are mainly affected by the austerity economy. Many women around the world are engaged in services, such as restaurants, factories, and hotels, which usually require face-to-face interaction with others.From following the quarantine measures, such as blockade and curfew, the significant increase in women spending more time at home has also increased the women's burden on housework, childcare, and eldercare, which worsened gender inequality.During the pandemic, gender inequality increased even in the United States, a developed country. In the U.S., a total of 140,000 jobs were lost compared to early December 2020, while women lost 156,000 jobs, men gained 16,000.Of course, many American men were also unemployed because of the pandemic. However, when the unemployment rate is divided by gender, men are far ahead of women. As a result, compared to the pre-pandemic, from February, women's jobs decreased by about 5.4 million, and men's jobs decreased by about 4.4 million. ㅡViolence against women isShadow Pandemicㅡ △ In the time between January to October 2020, 91 women in Italy were killed from violence. The photo shows Italians protesting against Gender-based Violence on the 'International Day for the Elimination of Violence Against Women' in November 2019.The pandemic also increased violence against women. As the time spent at home increased due to Covid 19, violence against women has increased significantly around the world. In addition to the virus, the “shadow pandemic” of violence against women is spreading.The UN warned that violence against women is also becoming a “pandemic” due to the Covid 19 pandemic. According to UN Women's Organization CEO Jail Le Mram Boung Kuka, 245 million women experienced sexual and physical violence from their partners in 2020 alone. Domestic violence, cyberbullying, child marriage, sexual harassment, and sexual violence increased in 2021 as well. A sad report was also published in Italy that 91 women were killed between January to the end of October 2020. Approximately one woman was killed every three days; 81 women were killed by family members, and 56 were victims of boyfriends.In December 2020, when Italy's tragic report became known, rallies and silent protests followed around the world. Participants at the rally raised their voices that the number of women suffering from domestic violence increased sharply as a blockade was imposed due to the Covid 19 outbreak.ㅡGender equality indexIceland at No. 1Afghanistan is lastㅡ △ The World Economic Forum publishes the “Global Gender Gap Report” every year. Click the link to view the report. https://www.weforum.org/reports/global-gender-gap-report-2021/digestAccording to the report “Global Gender Gap Report 2021,” the country with the highest gender equality index was Iceland, followed by Finland, Norway, New Zealand, Sweden, Namibia, and Rwanda. Iceland has held the No. 1 position in gender equality in this report for 12 consecutive times. △ According to the report “Global Gender Gap Report 2021,” the country with the highest gender equality index was Iceland, followed by Finland, Norway, New Zealand, Sweden, Namibia, and Rwanda.What is Iceland's #1 secret? This is due to the low burden of child-rearing and housekeeping for women. Iceland was also said to have had severe gender inequality until the 1980s. However, in 1975, women held a general strike to overcome gender discrimination at work and in housework, which led to changes by making men aware of the importance of parenting and housekeeping.After the general strike, Iceland allocated 40% of its lawmakers and ministers to women in a political agreement to equalize the gender ratio. In 2013, a law was passed that gives 40% of corporate board members to women.Currently, Iceland has twice as many female college graduates as men and is the world's number one female graduate in science and technology. Women's participation rate in economic activity is 88%, which is the No. 1 in the OECD. △ Afghan women are in the least gender-equal country in the world. An Afghan woman wears a cover-up burka and holds a child.Meanwhile, Afghanistan ranked 156th, ranking last among the countries surveyed. Women in Afghanistan are at the extreme opposite of those in Iceland. In Afghanistan, parenting and sharing of household chores are entirely up to women, and both women's education and social advancement are blocked.South Asia, with India, Sri Lanka, and Pakistan, was the most severe in gender inequality in each region of the world. South Asia took 195.4 years to achieve gender equality, followed by East Asia (165.1 years), which included South Korea, China, and Japan, longer than the Middle East and North Africa (142.4 years).ㅡWhat hinders gender equality?ㅡThe United Nations Women ranked the most impeding factors for gender equality in February. Click the link to download the “Report on the Results of the Survey from the Perspective of Key Stakeholders in the Next Generation Strategic Plan (2022-2025)”.https://www.unwomen.org/en/digital-library/publications/2021/02/key-stakeholders-perspectives-for-un-womens-next-strategic-plan1. Implementing existing laws and policies in an inappropriate way (64%)2. Insufficient female representatives in the positions of second-place decision-makers and leaders (60%)3. Firm discrimination, threatening attitude, and negative social norms (53%)4. Insufficient influence of the obligatory agency that enforces gender equality (51%)5. Gender inequality in the economy sector (51%)6. Chronic lack of gender equality and women's autonomy in the workplace (46%)ㅡPost-Pandemic,As an opportunity to restore global gender equality!ㅡ Women's employment must increase if we want a dynamic economy of the future. Perhaps the “Post Pandemic” economic recovery initiative could be a new opportunity to solidify gender equality.At this point in the post-pandemic contemplation, we need to complement the system that prohibits discrimination in employment and promotion and more additional education for women. It is also necessary to change a culture in which domestic work such as child-rearing and elderly care is too dependent on women. In addition, it is necessary to strengthen legislation to eradicate sexual violence that is taking place around the world.
Peace Issue Zero hunger! For a world without hungry people
Satisfying hunger through meals is an act of survival as well as a most basic and important human right. However, even in this day of abundance, approximately 9 percent of the world’s population of about 700 million people are suffering from hunger. That number is increasing by more than 10 million people every year. Why does this happen? ㅡFood security means having access to sufficient foodㅡFood self-sufficiency is decreasing worldwide. A major cause is that after the industrial revolution, industries moved from primary to secondary and tertiary industries, reducing agricultural area and labor worldwide. As a result, the food self-sufficiency rate has dropped dramatically in many countries as they started to depend on imported foods. The high dependence on foreign countries’ food export will be fatal if the exporting country decides not to export food.As each country’s food self-sufficiency drops, food security can become a national security issue. Food security means, that a country must always maintain an adequate food supply for its people even during special circumstances such as population growth, natural disasters, and war.After the 2008 global food crisis, food security became an even more important issue for the international society. A global recession started following the financial crisis that began in the United States in 2007, and global food prices surged over the next two years. The surge in food prices had a fatal impact especially on developing countries in Asia and Africa, and food riots broke out in more than 40 countries around the world. Those who could not buy food due to the high food prices in countries such as Algeria, Mexico, the Philippines, Haiti, and Egypt protested the government. Food had caused national security to be weakened. △ On October 8, 2017, the Rohingya people are reaching out to grab free bread held out by a man in Bangladesh. ㅡReasons food crises occurㅡFood security occurs due to the intertwining of multiple causes. l Continuous increase in world populationThe world population exceeded 3 billion in the 1960s, and since then, it has steadily increased by about 1 billion every 10 years, surpassing 7.8 billion in 2020. If this trend continues, the world population is expected to reach 9 billion by 2050. The top countries contributing to the growth in the world’s population are mostly developing countries in Asia and Africa, which are also the most vulnerable countries in terms of food security.l Weather variation and water shortageOver the past 100 years, the Earth’s temperature rose by about 1℃. If the use of fossil fuels continues at the current pace, the average global temperature is expected to rise by about 6.4℃ at the end of this century. Given the climate-dependent nature of agriculture, climate change is taking a heavy toll on crop growth, with increasing uncertainty in agricultural production due to frequent floods, droughts, massive typhoons, and tidal waves.l Increase in meat consumptionThe global community has become a fan of delicious meat and dairy products, and now consumes a huge amount of meat. The increase in meat consumption leads to a higher demand for grain. About 7~8 kilograms of grain are needed to produce 1 kilogram of beef. The consumption of grain as animal feed accounts for more than 40% of the world’s grain production.l Increase in biofuel usageBioethanol is a fuel made by fermenting starch crops such as sugar cane, wheat, corn, potatoes, and barley that is used as a fuel additive in vehicles. Producing enough bioethanol for a medium-sized car requires an amount of corn a person can eat for a year. As a huge amount of corn gets used to produce bioethanol, the amount available for human consumption will inevitably decrease. ㅡIf grain prices rise, commodity prices also riseㅡThe price of grains such as wheat and soybeans rose to 2 to 3 times higher in 2008. The rise in food prices led to a rise in commodity prices, which further led to global inflation. Such a phenomenon is called agflation.The global economy is greatly intertwined, and so an economic crisis and inflation that start in one country can have a great impact on other countries. What is agflation?Agflation is a new term that combines the terms agriculture and inflation to describe the phenomenon of commodity prices rising due to the rise in grain prices. This term was first introduced in the magazine Economist and has been widely used since then. Food insecurity due to agflation has led to riots and national crises in countries such as the Philippines, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Egypt, Mexico, and Haiti. The issue of food security has become much more important than before. ㅡ28 of the 48 countries in Africa are in a state of severe food insecurity ㅡ △ Children are receiving food distribution at a school in Rusinga, Kenya, October 23, 2016How serious is the hunger problem? The Global Hunger Index (GHI) is a tool designed to comprehensively measure and track hunger at global, regional, and national levels. It measures a country’s state of hunger on a 100-point scale. A GHI score of zero means that a country has no undernourished person in its population. A GHI score of 100 means that a country’s entire population is experience hunger. According to the 2020 Global Hunger Index report, the worldwide GHI score was 18.2, down from a 2000 GHI score of 28.2. Also, of the 48 countries in Africa, 28 countries are at a serious level of hunger and 8 countries are at an alarming level of hunger. In other words, 75% of the countries in Africa are experiencing a serious level of hunger. ㅡInternational efforts for food securityㅡThe United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 2 is to bring the number of people who suffer from hunger to zero. As a foremost goal, the UN is working towards zero hunger. The World Food Programme (WFP) is the world’s humanitarian organization focused on emergency relief, relief and reconstruction projects, and special response projects aimed at achieving zero hunger where no one suffers from a lack of food. The WFP is providing critical humanitarian aid to fight hunger at a time when the logistical flow of supplies has been blocked due to the spreading of COVID-19.What is the World Food Programme?Established in 1961, the WFP is the largest humanitarian organization focused on eradicating hunger through food assistance. The WFP, which operates offices in more than 80 countries around the world, helps nearly 100 million poor people in 88 countries each year. Currently, there are 36 State Members in the WFP’s Executive Board. The Republic of Korea has been participating as a board member since 2011.The WFP was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize "for its efforts to combat hunger, for its contribution to bettering conditions for peace in conflict-affected areas, and for acting as a driving force in efforts to prevent the use of hunger as a weapon of war and conflict." The Nobel Committee, in selecting the WFP for the Nobel Peace Prize, said, "Until the day we have a medical vaccine, food is the best vaccine against chaos." Among the Sunhak Peace Prize laureates, Dr. Modadugu Gupta, the co-recipient of the inaugural Sunhak Peace Prize in 2015, has also dedicated himself to combating the global food crisis. Dr. Modadugu Gupta is a fisheries scientist who dramatically increased fish production and laid the foundation for the Blue Revolution. Risking his life to work in conflict areas, Dr. Gupta developed low-cost aquaculture technology that has emerged as a possible solution to address the looming food crisis due to population increase and climate change-induced rise in food priceㅡFood security can be strengthened through alternative foods and agricultural innovationㅡThrough efforts to attain a stable food supply, there have been impressive developments in alternative foods and agricultural technology. The price of lab-grown meat obtained by indefinitely multiplying meat muscle cells has decreased significantly since its first introduction, and lab-grown meat is expected to become widely available. Also, plant-based meat and edible insects are rising as an alternative food due to their high productivity and high-quality protein content. New agricultural technology is also developing. A vertical farm uses urban high-rise buildings as agricultural land and can artificially control all conditions that affect farming (temperature, humidity, light, water, etc.) so that crops can be produced year-round regardless of the weather. Digital agriculture, which increases agricultural productivity by using technologies such as the internet of things, drones, and satellites, is also growing rapidly. By using drones and satellites to check the cultivation process and situation in real-time, a supply and demand plan can be made for the cops. These technologies can also be used to determine the appropriate time to use pesticides. By using less water and less pesticide through such technology, it will be possible to produce higher price agricultural products at lower costs.Securing a stable supply of food has been an important and long-standing task for humanity since human history began. Having food to eat at each meal to avoid hunger is not only an act that satisfies a basic human need but also a basic human right. Despite remarkable scientific advancement, two billion people around the world are still struggling to secure food. The global community needs to work together to solve the food crisis. ㅡWe need to create a world where no one is hungry ㅡ
Peace Issue As the world gets smaller, we need to become global citizens who solve global challenges together
We live in a large village called the Earth. Thanks to the rapid development in transportation and communication, we can fly to the other side of the Earth in one day and hear news from all around the world in real-time. As countries worldwide influence each other in various areas including politics, economics, society, culture, and science, the world is becoming a single community. However, as interdependence increases across the globe, many problems arising from such globalization are deepening. Climate change, pandemics, refugee crises, and other global problems all require international cooperation. The need for legal and institutional regulations that apply beyond national boundaries is becoming urgent and solving these global problems require an expansion of our perspectives beyond national borders. ㅡIn the age of globalization, we are already global citizensㅡ We live in a globalized world and are impacted by the effects of globalization. Therefore, we are already all global citizens. Furthermore, we need to be aware of the common problems that the Earth as a single community is facing and work together to solve them. Such efforts are not only for the Earth but for all individuals that are members of the global community. Let’s look at the definition of global citizenship. First, let’s look at the definition of a citizen. A citizen refers to a person who, as a member of a democratic society, has political rights and voluntarily and actively participates in national policy decisions. Following this definition, we can understand global citizens by extending the concept of nation that defines a citizen to the world. In other words, a global citizen refers to a person who, based on an awareness of the community, takes interest in the various global problems and actively works to solve them to create a peaceful global village. A global citizen does not reject other people based on their religion, race, or nationality and takes a continuous interest in solving the challenges faced by the global village.Someone with global citizenship understands their identity to extend beyond the family and nation to the entire world and actively participates to solve global issues by fostering a sense of morality, inclusion, and other characteristics. △ In November 2015, Syrian refugees arrived on the beach of Lesbos Island, Greece. A volunteer from Europe is helping the refugees who are full of fear and pain. Living in a globalized era, we must come together in solidarity. ㅡGlobal citizenship is the attitude of accepting differences and trying to solve global challenges togetherㅡWhat attitude should global citizens have? A global citizen does not reject other people based on their religion, race, or nationality and takes a continuous interest in solving the challenges faced by the global village. This is called global citizenship. In other words, global citizenship refers to recognizing oneself not simply as a citizen of one country but as a member of the global community and taking responsibility and authority as a global citizen. △ Internationally known youth environmentalist Greta Thunberg demonstrates together with other youths at the Bristol Youth Strike 4 Climate (BYS4C) on February 28, 2020.Important values that global citizens should possessl Human rightsHuman rights are rights that every person should enjoy as a human being. Regardless of race, religion, ethnicity, level of wealth, everyone’s human rights should be respected. l InterdependencePeople from all regions of the world are in an interdependent relationship. We need to understand that all events - economic, environmental, cultural, social, and political – that occur across the world have an impact on us and that our actions also impact the world.l Diversity A necessary condition for diverse people to co-exist peacefully is acceptance and respect for what is different. We need to accept differences in race and religion; social, historical, and political background; language, and culture; and throw away stereotypes and prejudice and be open to diversity.l SustainabilitySustainability refers to human beings having a long-term outlook and not destroying the natural resources for short-term growth. In other words, it refers to developing while maintaining harmony with nature.Attitudes global citizens should takel Empathy toward othersThe human rights of all people should not be violated for reasons of race, gender, regional characteristics, religion, economic hardship, and others. Global citizens should look after the hardships of our neighbors in the global village whose human rights have been violated and have empathy towards them.l Respect for what is differentGlobal citizens should respect differences among each other and accept cultural diversity.l Critical and creative thinkingGlobal citizens should analyze the cause and effect of phenomena that occur in the global village and think about how to eliminate the cause and creatively solve the problem.l Action-orientedOnce a problem is identified and the solution is found, action is required. Using the developed communication systems available, global citizens should listen to what is happening around the world, form an opinion and take action.ㅡGlobal challenges that require joint efforts of global citizensㅡAt the UN General Assembly in 2015, 17 common goals for humanity were agreed upon to be achieved by 2030. Under the slogan, “Leave no one behind,” the Sustainable Development Goals propose the direction humanity should take in the five areas of people, planet, prosperity, peace, and partnership. The 17 goals are composed of 169 more specific goals.l Seventeen goals for a better world 1. No poverty2. Zero hunger3. Good health and well-being4. Quality education5. Gender equality6. Clean water and sanitation7. Affordable and clean energy8. Decent work and economic growth9. Industry, innovation, and infrastructure10. Reduced inequalities11. Sustainable cities and communities12. Responsible consumption and production13. Climate action14. Life below water15. Life on land16. Peace, justice, and strong institutions17. Partnerships for the goalsl No povertyAround the world, 1.3 billion people are living in absolute poverty (World Bank, 2012). These people in on less than $1.25 a day. Despite rapid development that has raised the standard of living to its highest, the lives of 22.7% of the world's population suffer from poverty. Absolute poverty, in which survival is at stake due to lack of food and poor living conditions, is a problem that we all need to combine efforts to solve.l Zero hungerCurrently, the world's malnourished population is about 800 million (10.7 percent). The United Nations aims to end hunger and all forms of malnutrition by 2030, but its achievement is projected to be difficult.There is enough food in the world for everyone to eat. However, hundreds of millions of people suffer from hunger because production and distribution are uneven and do not take into consideration the poorest people. Poverty and starvation are also the results of social, political, and structural inequality, such as the lack of proper welfare systems, corruption, and unequal trade structures. Therefore, solving the issues of hunger and food inequality requires a holistic approach within political and social contexts, and a solution must be sought from a global perspective.l Protection of the environmentPollutants produced by a country spread to the rest of the world through the atmosphere and currents. Yellow dust, fine dust, ship oil, and radioactive materials are some of the representative pollutants. These can lead to conflicts and disputes between countries.Since the start of the industrial revolution in the 18th century, fossil fuels used by humankind have been emitting greenhouse gases. An increase in greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere produced a warming effect, and the average temperature of the Earth has risen by about 0.8 degrees Celsius over the past 100 years as of 2020. As a result, glaciers have been reduced, sea levels have risen, and various weather anomalies and natural disasters are threatening the Earth's ecosystem.l Conflict and refugeesTo this day, conflicts between countries and ethnic groups are occurring in many parts of the world due to differences in religion, race, and culture. Regional conflicts that start in certain areas expand into wars between countries and even into indiscriminate terrorism that spreads fear globally. Recently, conflicts and friction have intensified due to religious fundamentalism or exclusive nationalism. The conflict between Palestine and Israel and the civil war in Syria are affecting neighboring countries.The number of forcibly displaced people worldwide who have lost their homes due to conflict and violence reached 79.5 million or 1 percent of the world’s population at the end of 2019 (UNHCR). This number is the highest since World War II. As conflicts in the Middle East and Africa intensified in the 21st century, the number of refugees has exploded.Many refugees die in the process of crossing an international border. In many countries, there are conflicting opinions regarding the acceptance of refugees leading to a crisis in how to deal with the refugee inflow. Peaceful coexistence with refugees is an important challenge in the 21st century. ㅡUrgent call for solidarity among global citizens in an age of pandemicㅡAn unprecedented global epidemic has brought chaos to the entire global community. The World Health Organization officially declared COVID-19 as a pandemic on March 11, 2020.What's even scarier than a virus is indiscriminate hatred. The COVID-19 virus is creating hatred, discrimination, and unconditional exclusivism against China, where the first case occurred, Chinese people and other Asians. This exclusivist attitude adversely affects the path toward resolution of the pandemic, which requires international cooperation.COVID-19 cannot be overcome with nationalism. To overcome the pandemic, international cooperation and global solidarity are needed in developing vaccines and sharing quarantine best practices. It should be recognized that the people who were already vulnerable, suffering from conflict, hunger, violence, and poverty before the pandemic, face an even more severe crisis, and greater attention and efforts need to be given to them. ㅡWe must foster our global citizenship at a time when problems requiring international cooperation are increasingㅡ
Peace Issue Female genital mutilation, a practice that needs to end
“The practice [of female genital mutilation] also violates a person's rights to health, security and physical integrity, the right to be free from torture and cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment, and the right to life when the procedure results in death.” -World Health Organization-ㅡAt least 200 million girls and women alive today living in 31 countries have undergone FGM. An estimated 3 million girls are at risk of undergoing FGM every year.ㅡFemale genital mutilation refers to any procedure that involves partial or total damage to the external female genitalia or another injury to the female genital organs for non-medical reasons, usually carried out as a religious or traditional custom. The official name set by the World Health Organization (WHO) is “female genital mutilation” and is abbreviated as “FGM”.According to UN data, there are at least 200 million girls and women alive today who have undergone FGM, and an estimated 3 million girls are at risk of undergoing FGM every year. FGM is carried out mostly in about 31 countries in Africa, the Middle East, and Asia. It is estimated that 98% of women in Somalia, 97% in Guinea, 90% in Sierra Leone, 87% in Egypt, 83% in Eritrea, 74% in Ethiopia, 25% in Nigeria, 19% in Yemen, and 8% in Iraq were circumcised. Recently, FGM has been introduced to Europe and American countries, as ethnic groups with FGM traditions have immigrated to Europe, United States, and South America. Source: FGM Prevalence UNICEF (2016)ㅡA 4,000-year-old practice – is it tradition or violence? ㅡFGM is seen as a practice that has been handed down from generation to generation in Africa for thousands of years. Although the exact origin is unknown, there are several conjectures.Three conjectures of the origin of FGM① It has been performed for disease prevention, healthy sex life after marriage, and hygienic reasons. ② It started as a form of sacrifice to a fertility god. ③ It began as a rite of passage to becoming an adult or becoming an official member of a tribe or nation. Reasons FGM is carried out① Rite of passage to become an adult: Some societies believe that the clitoral gland of the female genitals are considered traces of men remaining in the female body, so women have to go through the FGM to become complete adults. ② Premarital purity: Some societies believe that girls who go through FGM are more likely to keep their premarital purity and become virtuous women after marriage. In this regard, there is a perception that women who have not been circumcised are unreliable and unsophisticated.③ Polygamic reasons: FGM is practiced mainly in African and Islamic cultures, where polygamy is common. It is said that since it is not easy for a husband to take care of several wives at once under polygamy, he conducts FGM as a method to manage his wivesGirls and women who have undergone FGM have to live with physical side effects and complications throughout the rest of their lives. The procedure is accompanied by severe pain and bleeding. Most of the time, it is carried out without anesthesia. Furthermore, such pain can become a mental trauma causing the person to feel shame, loss, discouragement, and emotional anxiety for the rest of the person’s life. By 2050, one-third of the world’s female population will be born in the 31 countries where FGM is still performed. This means that more than 500 million women will be exposed to the risk of FGM. In Somalia, where the proportion of women who experience FGM is high, the female population is estimated to double in 2050 compared to 2017, signifying that even more women will be affected by FGM.ㅡBringing FGM to the world’s attention ㅡ FGM was considered an African tradition until world-famous fashion model Waris Dirie, who had undergone FGM as a young girl growing up in Somalia, exposed its inhumane violence to Western society in 1997.Waris Dirie served as the United Nations Goodwill Ambassador for the Elimination of Female Genital Mutilation from 1997 to 2003. During her tenure, she highlighted FGM as the most representative and symbolic international problem that suppresses women’s human rights.International efforts to eliminate FGMIn 2003, the first lady of Nigeria, Mrs. Stella Obasanjo, officially declared “Zero Tolerance to FGM” in Africa during a conference organized by the Inter-African Committee on Traditional Practices Affecting the Health of Women and Children. Then in 2012, the UN General Assembly designated February 6th as the International Day of Zero Tolerance for Female Genital Mutilation. Centering on the UN, many international organizations are working to spread the awareness that FGM is not simply a matter of culture or tradition but inhumane violence and are taking the lead in efforts to legally ban FGM. To eliminate FGM, women’s perception and understanding are more important than anything else. International NGOs have carried out education to change the perception of FGM from a beautiful tradition to a cruel and violent act against human rights. The UN is carrying out various activities with the goal of eliminating FGM by 2030. Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 5 is to “achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls.” The third target under this SDG is to “eliminate all harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage, and female genital mutilations.” In July 2003, government representatives from the AU member countries gathered in Maputo, Mozambique, and adopted the Protocol to the African Charter on Human and Peoples’ Rights on the Rights of Women in Africa, or the Maputo Protocol. Article 5 of the Maputo Protocol emphasizes the elimination of harmful practices, referring to a ban on female genital mutilation and other traditional practices that are harmful to women.Global media coverage and interviews of those who have undergone FGM have raised the interest of many people about the issue of FGM. UNICEF, Desert Flower Foundation, and Tostan are some of the international NGOs working to eliminate FGM. Since the 2000s, many countries have enacted legal bans on FGM, and there has been the constant declaration of eradication of FGM led by community leaders. However, FGM has not been completely eradicated. Stay-at-home restrictions due to COVID-19 have worsened the situation. ㅡStop FGM! ㅡ In a world where diverse peoples and cultures actively interact and coexist, FGM is a common problem for the world. Living in the 21st century, we need to be aware of the violence of FGM that threatens girls' and women’s lives and work together to eliminate it.
Peace Issue Things we must do for a sustainable ocean
In the summer of 1997, Captain Charles Moore was passing through the middle of the North Pacific Gyre when he encountered a stretch of plastic debris surrounding the ship. For a week straight, he sailed between the pieces of plastic, all of which were plastic waste that came from the land. What had happened to the ocean?ㅡThe deep and wide ocean gave us many giftsㅡHow well do you know the ocean? l 71% of the Earth’s surfaceThe Earth glows blue when seen from space. This is because most of the Earth’s surface is covered by the ocean. In fact, about 71% of the Earth’s surface area is covered with water, which is equivalent to about 362 million square kilometers.l 97% of the Earth’s waterFreshwater coming from glaciers, lakes, and rivers accounts for only about 3% of the total volume of water on Earth. Of the 3%, much less is accessible as drinking water for humans. Accordingly, technology to convert the abundant seawater into freshwater is actively being researched, developed, and applied.l Produces 70% of the atmosphere’s oxygenThe ocean supplies oxygen, which is essential for sustaining life. Marine algae and other ocean phytoplankton produce about 70 percent of the oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere. The amount of oxygen supplied by the ocean is far greater than double the amount that is supplied by the Amazon rainforest.l Ocean is the Earth’s air conditioner One of the functions the ocean performs is to control the Earth’s weather. The ocean current circulates energy by moving the heat near the equator to high latitudes with less heat. The ocean acts like an air conditioner for the Earth. If the ocean currents do not perform this function, the tropics will get hotter and polar regions will get even colder.l Repository of the tremendous amount of resources A wide range of creatures live in the ocean and a vast array of mineral and energy resources are buried within it. The ocean has infinite potential for development. About 17,000 species of plants and about 152,000 species of animals live in the ocean, which accounts for 80 percent of the Earth's species.The ocean also has a vast amount of energy resources such as oil and natural gas. As of 2012, approximately 30 percent of the world's oil came from offshore oil fields. In addition, energy is being produced from the ocean using the ocean tides, current, wave, and temperature differences.The magazine Nature estimates the total annual value of land ecosystems at $10.6 trillion and the total annual value of marine ecosystems at $22.6 trillion, which is more than double the land ecosystem value. It also estimates the available use period of mineral deposits on land to be 40 to 110 years, but 200 to 10,000 years in the ocean.ㅡOur ocean is becoming ill ㅡMarine pollution refers to the deterioration of water quality and other adverse effects to the ocean caused by chemicals and trash produced by human activities entering the ocean. Most pollutants produced on land will eventually reach the ocean. Among the substances that enter the ocean, pollutants with a high degree of residuality remain in the ocean and form high concentrations in the environment or inside the body of marine creatures, causing serious problems.What is happening to the ocean?l The ocean is getting hotterGlobal warming is having a huge impact on the ocean as well as on land. For the past 100 years, the average temperature of the ocean surface has risen 0.1℃ every 10 years, and the temperature of the deep sea is rising faster than the shallow sea. Even if humankind were to stop greenhouse gas emissions right now, the temperature of the deep sea is expected to rise steadily until 2050.l Ocean water nutrient pollutionNutrient pollution refers to the gradual increase of phosphorus, nitrogen, and other plant nutrients causing excessive algae growth, which reduces the amount of oxygen in the water. This in turn hinders the breathing of fish and other marine life. When nutrient pollution intensifies, the blue color of the water changes to red, and fish die in droves.l Loss of marine habitatsMarine life habitats where spawning, breeding, and growing occur are being destroyed by industrial development, pollutants, and climate change. Between 1980 and 2010, 40% of marine life habitats such as coastal wetlands, mangrove forests, sea forests, coral reefs, and mudflats disappeared or were destroyed.l Marine life extinction According to the 2019 Global Assessment Report on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services, 60% of the world's marine regions are adversely affected by humans and 267 species of marine life are on the verge of disappearing.ㅡWhat are the most common types of trash found on beaches? ㅡAbout 80% of marine pollution comes from land, and plastic makes up the biggest proportion. Over 90% of the trash floating in the ocean is plastic. Every year, up to 12.7 million tons of plastic are thrown away into the ocean. Seventy percent of the plastic that flows into the ocean slowly sinks below sea level. Sea creatures can swallow plastic pieces and choke to death. Pieces of plastic floating in the ocean are broken down into tiny pieces by seawater or sunlight. The tiny pieces of plastic are called microplastic and are sometimes eaten by the fish. Once swallowed, microplastics stay in the fish for a long time and emit various harmful substances. Humans who eat these fish are also not free from the damages caused by the negative substances. What are the most common types of trash found on beaches?(Based on the Ocean Conservancy’s 2019 International Coastal Cleanup analysis)1) Food packaging (4.77 million)2) Cigarette butts (4.2 million, was the most common for 33 years)3) Plastic bottle (1.88 million)4) Plastic bottle caps (1.5 million)5) Plastic straw (940,000)Besides these kinds of trash, there are various other pollutants harming the ocean. Pesticide absorbed into the soil flows into rivers and seas, and heavy metals that are produced in the process of plating and petrochemical and automobile production flow into rivers along with sewage and wastewater eventually flowing into the sea. Large amounts of nuclear waste have also been dumped in the ocean. △ The third Saturday of September of every year is the International Coastal Cleanup day. It began in 1986 when the environmental organization Ocean Conservancy based in Texas first started the cleanup with the support of the UN Environment Programme. Currently, about 500,000 volunteers from 100 countries worldwide participate in the cleanup making it one of the largest environmental events for the protection of the ocean. ㅡThe ocean is not the Earth’s trash bin ㅡ International efforts for a sustainable marine ecosystemThe causes of marine pollution and the collapse of the marine ecosystem are very complex and diverse, and the scope of causes span the entire global community. Therefore, it is important for all countries in the world to work together to come up with and implement solutions. The international community, countries, organizations, and individuals need to work together.l International conventionVarious international agreements have been signed to address the marine pollution and collapse of the marine ecosystem.① Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution by Dumping of Waste and Other Matter (1972, London Convention): Convention to regulate the dumping of waste from airplanes and ships② Global Programme of Action for the Protection of the Marine Environment from Land-based Activities (1995, GPA): The GPA was created as an intergovernmental mechanism to counter land-based pollution and its impacts on the marine environment through detailed action plans.③ Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (2001): This international environmental treaty aims to eliminate or restrict the production and use of persistent organic pollutants that do not decompose in the natural environment and accumulate in plants and animals up the food chain causing disturbance of the immune system and damage to the central nervous system.④ Honolulu Strategy of the International Marine Debris Conference (2001): The Honolulu Strategy is a global framework to reduce the amount of marine debris produced worldwide and manage and reduce the amount and impacts of existing marine debris.National efforts for a sustainable marine ecosysteml Designation of marine protected areasCountries are designating marine protected areas to protect the ocean and sustainably manage marine habitats and resources. l Support for development of plastic alternativesPlastic made from plant sources, such as fruit cells and corn, that are biodegradable and harmless to the human body, and other kinds of plastic alternatives is being developed. l Encouragement and operation of the marine resources certification systemA country can support and encourage fishing companies and workers to secure seafood supplies in a sustainable manner without overfishing and illegal fishing. Furthermore, responsible and healthy consumption by consumers should be encouraged by expanding the market for seafood supplies produced in a sustainable manner.Individual efforts for a sustainable marine ecosysteml Reduce the use of plasticUsing reusable water bottles instead of disposable water bottles and using reusable shopping bags or baskets instead of plastic bags can make a positive difference to making our oceans healthy again.l Participate in marine protection activitiesParticipating in or sponsoring marine cleanup activities hosted by good NGOs dedicated to protecting marine habitats and wildlife can also be a way to create a healthy ocean.l Consume sustainable seafoodSome companies supply seafood in a sustainable way, while others do not. When purchasing seafood, purchase products from companies that practice sustainable fishing when possible to help protect the ocean.ㅡLet’s save the ocean! ㅡ △ In July 2020, the Japanese bulk carrier Wakashio ran aground on a coral reef off the southeastern coast of Mauritius, and more than 1,000 tons of oil spilled into the sea. Volunteers are working to remove the oil off the coast of where the accident occurred. Now is the golden time to save the ocean. The deep and wide ocean, covering 71% of the Earth’s surface, that has been providing humanity with necessities of life for a long time, is being polluted daily and slowly dying. The enormous amount of pollutants and trash that humans have let flow into the ocean has caused the ocean to lose its self-purifying ability. Ocean pollution not only affects marine life but also affects humanity’s life. The serious problem facing the ocean is the responsibility of humanity. The only way to save the ocean is to understand clearly the dire situation of the ocean’s health and act now to improve the situation. Let us all work together to turn the polluted ocean into a healthy ocean once again.!
Peace Issue Every human being has the right to be cured
Ninety percent of people who contract disease live in developing countries in Africa, South Asia, and Latin America. However, these countries only account for 10% of the world’s healthcare resources. In these countries, 15,000 infants die every day from treatable diseases. ㅡMany people still die from preventable diseasesㅡHealth inequality refers to the gap in health that arises from the difference in social and economic status such as income level, occupation, class, wealth, and education level. As nutrition improves and medical technology develops, the life expectancy of people is increasing. An increase in life expectancy, increase in immunity, and decrease in infectious disease mortality rate, among other measures, show that healthcare is being provided at the highest level in history.However, 3.6 million people die every year due to lack of treatment. because they are unable to receive treatment. To prevent and treat diseases, proper nutrition and a hygienic environment, as well as on-time vaccination, diagnosis, and treatment, are important. Because the conditions for preventing and treating diseases are unequal among individuals, countries, and society, many times, even minor illnesses lead to death. About 800,000 children die each year from diarrhea because they are not able to receive the appropriate medical treatment at the right time. ㅡThe gap between average life expectancy in developed and underdeveloped countries is 20 years!ㅡ Global health inequality is deepening. The average life expectancy in 2020 for the world was 73.2 years. Over the past 100 years, human life expectancy has increased significantly. For most of the developed countries, it is over 80 years. With the development of medical technology and improvement in the public health environment, some countries even expect the average life expectancy to reach 100 years.However, the average life expectancy in underdeveloped countries in 2020 was between 50 and 60. This is because infant mortality and maternal mortality rates are still high in underdeveloped countries in Africa and South Asia. Many children in these regions die from endemic diseases such as typhus, malaria, and dengue fever, and highly contagious diseases such as polio, pneumonia, cholera, and measles.The most widely used indicators to assess the quality of public health are infant mortality rate (the number of infant deaths within a year of birth per 1000 live births) and maternal mortality ratio (the number of women dying from complications from pregnancy or childbirth per 100,000 live births). As a country's economy grows and its healthcare infrastructure improves, infant mortality and maternal mortality decrease.Infant and maternal mortality rates are highest in Africa and South Asia. In these regions, children's and women’s health remain a blind spot. The main causes of infant mortality are preventable infections and endemic diseases, and the main causes of maternal mortality are poor prenatal management, lack of delivery facilities, and infection during labor among others.ㅡThe most serious preventable diseasesㅡ △ Many people in Soroti, Uganda, Africa get infected with malaria because of poor conditions. Malaria is preventable through insecticide-treated mosquito nets and malaria vaccinations, and even if a person is infected, it can be cured through drug treatment for 15 days if it is diagnosed early on.l Pneumonia: 2.65 million deaths per yearPneumonia, a very common disease, is the inflammation of the lungs accompanied by symptoms such as coughing, phlegm, chills, and fever. Although it can be prevented with vaccination, 2.56 million people around the world died of pneumonia in 2017, due to lack of vaccination, diagnosis, and treatment. One-third of the deaths were of children under the age of five.l Tuberculosis: 1.5 million deaths per yearAlthough tuberculosis (TB) is a disease that has disappeared from many developed countries, outbreaks still occur in developing and underdeveloped countries. In 2018, around 10 million people worldwide contracted TB and 1.5 million people died from it.l AIDS: 690,000 deaths per yearAIDS is one of the most serious public health issues in the world today. It is most seriously widespread in underdeveloped countries, with more than two-thirds of all infected people living in sub-Saharan Africa. Of that population, children account for about 5%. AIDS is the number one cause of death for adolescents aged 10-19 in Africa and the second cause of death for adolescents worldwide.l Malaria: 400,000 deaths per yearMalaria, an infectious disease transmitted by mosquitoes, is an endemic disease that is widely spread across the African continent, with more than 10% of infected people dying. In 2019, there were about 229 million cases of malaria and 409,000 deaths from malaria. Children under the age of 5 accounted for the largest proportion of deaths. Malaria is preventable through insecticide-treated mosquito nets and malaria vaccinations, and even if a person is infected, it can be cured through drug treatment for 15 days if it is diagnosed early on. However, mosquito nets, malaria vaccines, and antimalarial drugs are too expensive for people living in Africa. The price of antimalarial drugs is about $20, which is far too high for people living on $1 a day on average.ㅡWhy is the average life expectancy low in underdeveloped countries?ㅡl Lack of national healthcare infrastructureA lack of national healthcare infrastructure is the biggest reason. Countries in Africa and South Asia are struggling to diagnose and treat diseases due to a lack of medical staff, facilities, and medicine. In addition, the lack of national vaccination projects and healthcare projects makes disease prevention challenging. Malaria, typhoid, cholera, dengue fever, polio, and measles are diseases that can be prevented by timely vaccination and proper sanitation. However, they remain fatal in underdeveloped countries. △ In April 2019, a baby is lying outdoors in a dirty bathtub in Senegal. Diseases that can be prevented by timely vaccination and a hygienic environment can be still fatal in underdeveloped countries. l PovertyPoverty makes receiving proper treatment challenging. Without money, a person cannot go to the hospital or buy medicine even if he or she is sick. About 800 million people in the world spend more than 10 percent of their household income on medical expenses, and 100 million of them live in extreme poverty. For these 100 million people, after their medical expenses, they only have $1.90 a day (as of 2018) to survive on.l Lack of disease awareness Lack of awareness around the disease is also a big challenge. It is difficult for poor people in underdeveloped countries to receive proper education, which leads to a lack of awareness of health, hygiene, and medical care. These people often neglect personal health and miss the proper timing of receiving medical treatment due to poor concepts of hygiene, blind faith in traditional medical beliefs, and poor understanding of diseases, prevention, and treatment methods.l Facilities with poor hygiene conditionsUnhygienic bathrooms are hotbeds for diseases. In underdeveloped countries, there are often insufficient sanitation facilities, and so it is common for people to defecate near open places by the river where food is being prepared or near where children are playing. These unsanitary practices encourage disease outbreaks. It is common to be infected with germs and parasites as well as diseases such as diarrhea, cholera, dysentery, and typhoid from using contaminated water. △ February 14, 2015 – Unsanitary toilets in remote villages in the central region of Kasai, the Democratic Republic of the Congo provide favorable conditions for disease outbreaks.l Drugs that are not researched due to low profitabilitySome drugs, despite the need, are not researched due to low profitability. Treatments for frequent endemic diseases and infectious diseases that occur mostly in developing countries are much less profitable than various health supplements and cancer treatments mostly sold in developed countries. Consequently, pharmaceutical companies are passive in developing drugs for diseases in developing countries and it becomes even more difficult to receive proper treatment in developing countries. ㅡGoal to ensure healthy lives and well-being for all peopleㅡThe United Nations set the following goals to achieve good health and well-being for all by 2030. This is the third of the Sustainable Development Goals set in 2015, which aims to raise the level of health of vulnerable people. SDG 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all of all ages① Reduce the global maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 live births.② End preventable deaths of newborns and children under 5 years of age, with all countries aiming to reduce neonatal mortality to at least as low as 12 per 1,000 live births and under-5 mortality to at least as low as 25 per 1,000 live births.③ End the epidemics of AIDS, tuberculosis, malaria, and neglected tropical diseases and combat hepatitis, water-borne diseases, and other communicable diseases.④ Reduce by one third premature mortality from non-communicable diseases through prevention and treatment and promote mental health and well-being.The international community is working hard to achieve these goals. l Strengthening basic health systemsStrengthening basic health systems is a major focus of international efforts. International organizations such as the World Health Organization and UNICEF work with governments to operate and support programs that provide education, training, and information related to disease prevention and hygiene improvement for households and communities. Such organizations provide technology, strategy, etc. to governments and provide necessary medical equipment and train public health personnel. They provide basic health services mainly to underdeveloped countries where health services are not available due to lack of essential medical facilitiesl Support for neonatal healthAround 7,000 newborns die every day worldwide. Lack of awareness of unsanitary environment and lack of essential medical services are the biggest causes of newborn deaths in underdeveloped countries. To address these issues, international organizations, governments, and related agencies work together to implement programs that provide vaccinations and nutrition and help prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV and other infectious diseases.l Support for maternal healthAround 830 women worldwide die from pregnancy and childbirth related complications every day. The death of mothers due to pregnancy and childbirth can be sufficiently prevented by proper medical support, systematic prepartum and postpartum care, and provision of pregnancy and childbirth related information. International organizations and governments are carrying out health and medical projects to help mothers and newborns around the world to be able to receive professional help during childbirth and have access to clean water, proper nutrition, basic medical services, and vaccines.ㅡWe must work together to protect the health and human rights of all peopleㅡ
Peace Issue We need to create a better world where we live together with refugees
△ Syrian refugees aboard a ship from Turkey arrive near Molyvos, Lesvos, Greece, on October 29, 2015. Refugees are seriously injured or killed during the dangerous journey.In 2015, the death of a child shocked the entire world. The three-year-old child who was found dead on the Turkish beach was named Alan Kurdi. Kurdi had died from a shipwreck while trying to escape to Europe from the Syrian Civil War. This single photo of an innocent child’s death was more than enough for the world to realize the seriousness of the refugee problem. Who is responsible for Kurdi’s death?ㅡThere are people who flee for their livesㅡRefugees are people who “owing to a well-founded fear of being persecuted for reasons of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinions, is outside the country of his nationality and is unable or owing to such fear, is unwilling to avail himself of the protection of that country; or who, not having a nationality and being outside the country of his former habitual residence as a result of such events, is unable or, owing to such fear, is unwilling to return to it.”Refugees are people who have to emigrate to preserve their lives and freedom. Most refugees leave their homeland empty-handed in desperate situations. These people cannot seek protection from their home country and sometimes, their home country is the one persecuting them. If other countries do not accept them and they cannot receive help from their own country, their lives become as if they have received the death sentence. They will have to continue their lives without any rights under conditions where it is difficult to sustain their livelihoods. △ Syrian refugees are passing through Slovenia’s Doveba Station on October 25, 2015, to head to Germany, their dream destination.Reasons people become refugeesl War refugeesThose who are forced to flee due to armed conflicts due to racial, ethnic, ideological, territorial, and underground resource disputes. Syrian refugees, Somali refugees, and Afghan refugees due to civil war and conflict between countries are examples of war refugees. l Political refugeesThose who flee to escape suppression by the regime due to different political ideologies. Yemeni refugees, Kurdish refugees, and Venezuelan refugees are examples of political refugees. l Religious refugeesThose who leave their homes to avoid conflicts, oppression, and massacres due to religious differences. Rohingya refugees who fled to escape political and religious persecution from the Myanmar government are an example of religious refugees.l Climate refugeesThose who lose their homes due to natural disasters that cannot be controlled by humankind such as floods, droughts, volcanic eruptions, earthquakes, and tsunamis. Kiribati refugees in the South Pacific who face the threat of their homes being submerged underwater due to climate change-induced sea-level rise and Haiti refugees who lost their homes due to the level 7.0 earthquake are examples. Climate change will become a greater cause of refugees in the future. Damage to drinking water sources, an increase of droughts and floods, reduction in food production caused by climate change are already seriously affecting Asia, Africa, and the Middle East. ㅡOne percent of the world’s population do not have a homeㅡ△ October 2015, Syrian refugees in a refugee camp in Kos, Greece, are in despair. In 2019, 1% of the world's population, or 79.5 million people were living as refugees. Every two seconds, a person becomes a refugee fleeing from war and violence. Even at this moment, a person is losing hope.The number of refugees worldwide has doubled compared to 2010. During the last ten years since 2010, 100 million people sought protection within their country or from another country after leaving their homes due to threats to their safety.More than 80% of refugees are staying in countries or regions suffering from food shortages and malnutrition, and many of these countries are also exposed to the dangers of climate disasters. The top source countries of refugees are Syria, Yemen, Afghanistan, South Sudan, Myanmar, and Venezuela.More than half of all refugees are children and adolescents. Some were forced to leave their hometowns along with their parents, but others became refugees themselves to escape the threats posed to them. Every year, about 10,000 children and adolescents leave in search of safety by themselves. In many cases, they also become orphaned refugees after being separated from their parents during their refugee life.ㅡLife-threatening journey of refugeesㅡWhat awaits the refugees after they leave their homes?l Life-threatening escape and journeyThe refugees' escapes and journeys are always accompanied by danger. Refugees who do not have official documents to cross the border mostly use illegal methods such as using informal passageways or getting help from brokers.As a result, they have no choice but to go over the barbed wire fence, ride a boat with water leaks, and even hide in a container with no breathing holes in their journey to find refuge. The number of refugees who lose their lives in accidents during the escape journey continues to increase.Currently, most of the refugees are headed for Europe. Most refugees come from Africa or the Middle East, and to them, Europe is the closest and the most suitable place to settle down. But now, Europe has begun to close its doors to refugees.l Refugee campsMost of the refugees leave their hometowns with empty hands. To protect them, international relief agencies provide refugee camps. Since countries in Africa and the Middle East are some of the biggest source countries of refugees, many refugee camps are in neighboring countries such as Jordan, Pakistan, Ethiopia, and Kenya. However, these camps are poorly facilitated. Public health care or education is difficult to expect, and there are only a small amount of rationed food and tent facilities to avoid rain and wind.According to the UNHCR, the UN Refugee Agency, more than half of the world’s refugee camps are unable to provide the minimum recommended amount of water per person, which is 20 liters. Furthermore, about 30% of the camps are not equipped with proper waste disposal and bathroom facilities. △ Refugee camp for Syrian refugees located in Turkeyl Difficult and long path to asylumA person persecuted by one’s own country may apply to be protected by another sovereign authority, and this is called seeking “asylum”. Only when asylum applications are accepted can refugees who arrive in a new country receive official protection from the country's government and enjoy a full life. But it is generally very difficult to be granted asylum, and it may take years for asylum to be finally confirmed.l Forced repatriation of refugeesIf those who have left their homelands cannot attain refugee status, they are repatriated to their home country. The Refugee Convention stipulates that "no person shall be deported or repatriated to the borders of any area where life or freedom may be threatened on the grounds of race, religion, nationality, membership of a particular social group or political opinion." This is the most basic principle of refugee protection in the Refugee Convention and is legally binding for all countries in the world under international customary law. However, many countries violate the agreement and forcibly repatriate refugees by prioritizing their interests and relations with neighboring countries.ㅡChild refugees face an even more dangerous and uncertain futureㅡ△ January 31, 2017, refugee children are playing in Belgrade, Serbia. Less than half of child and adolescent refugees receive school education despite education being the most important factor in helping them start a new life. Education should be provided as a priority. More than half of refugees are children and adolescents. There are 3.5 million refugee children who are unable to go to school due to conflicts and violence. Amidst conflict situations where it is a challenge for refugees to find food and a place to rest, education becomes a luxury. Children and adolescents who do not have prospects for entering school and gaining employment are at greater risk of being taken advantage of and committing illegal acts out of desperation. Refugee children who are unable to receive education are more likely to become subject to human trafficking or child labor.Threats child and adolescent refugees face① In some countries, children are forced to fight as child soldiers.② In some regions, children are forced to marry at an early age.③ Sometimes, the parents or brokers sell the children, and such children are sent to unfamiliar homes to work or are forced to work in factories under harsh conditions.Provision of educational opportunity is the most important factor for child and adolescent refugees to start a new life. Education is a basic right and a very important part of finding hope and dignity for people who have been forced to leave their homes. It is because education is the tool that can enable them to stand on their own to create a better future for themselves. △ August 13, 2015, Students studying at a school in a refugee camp in Gaziantep, Turkey ㅡWe were all refugees or are potential refugeesㅡMany countries around the world oppose accepting refugees because accepting refugees can place a huge economic and social burden on the country. To protect refugees, the government must spend an enormous budget, which is covered by the people's taxes. Furthermore, there are concerns that if many refugees are taken in, the competition for jobs may intensify.However, refugees may become a source of human capital as well. According to the French National Science Research Center, refugees benefited the economy of European countries. The study says that 3 to 5 years after refugees received refugee status, they increased the accepting country’s GDP, and increased tax revenue by 1%. The world is becoming smaller, and the issue of refugees is becoming an issue for all of us. The refugee issue affects not just the source country but its neighboring countries and even the world. It is a global issue. Therefore, to solve the refugee problem, each one of us needs to have the awareness that we are world citizens who belong to a common community of Earth. When we see the world as one community, national borders and nationalities become meaningless and each one of us becomes an equal member of the community. If we trace back our history, one of our ancestors may be a refugee who came from afar. Also, any one of us can become a refugee fleeing from unavoidable danger and violence. All countries on Earth have the potential to become a source country of refugees as well as a receiving country that protects refugees. With this awareness, we need to find a way to live together with refugees. ㅡWe need to protect and live together with refugees around the worldㅡ
Peace Issue Why we need to take immediate action to stop climate change
In the summer of 2007, the Arctic sea ice that had remained frozen for thousands of years began to melt. Its surface area decreased to a quarter of what it was before. Due to these changes in the Arctic Ocean ecosystem, many animals, including polar bears, have become endangered. But is global warming a problem only for polar bears?ㅡThe threat we are facing nowㅡFor the past 100 years, the Earth has become warmer at a faster pace than ever before. The Earth’s temperature has never changed by more than 1°C in the previous 10,000 years, but in the recent 100 years since the Industrial Revolution, the Earth’s temperature rose by 1°C. This phenomenon of the Earth becoming warmer is called global warming.Reasons the Earth’s temperature is risingl Human activityClimate change can occur due to natural causes but the climate change being experienced in the past 100 years has been accelerated by human activity. l Greenhouse gases and greenhouse effectNinety-nine percent of the Earth’s atmosphere is composed of nitrogen and oxygen. The remaining one percent is mostly made up of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and water vapor. These greenhouse gases create the appropriate temperature for us to live in. Over the past 100 years, the concentration of greenhouse gases in the Earth’s atmosphere has increased by more than necessary, which has warmed up the Earth.ㅡGreenhouse gases are accelerating global warmingㅡReasons greenhouses gases are increasingl Indiscriminate use of coal and oilThe biggest cause of greenhouse gases is fossil fuels such as coal and oil, which make up more than 90 percent of the energy source used on Earth today. Fossil fuels are used in thermal power plants that produce electricity, factories that mass-produce various products needed in daily life, and transportation methods such as cars and trains. Although the use of fossil fuels has allowed material abundance and convenience for humankind, it is destroying the Earth’s ecosystem.l Methane emitted by livestockMethane emitted by livestock raised for human consumption, especially cattle, has 30 times more global warming potential than carbon dioxide. Surprisingly, about 20% of all greenhouse gases are emitted by livestock. This is more than the amount produced by cars. l Huge increase in garbageThe tremendous amount of garbage being produced since Industrialization is also a factor. A large amount of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, is produced during the process of breaking down the huge amount of garbage that is generated every day.l Indiscriminate deforestationForests around the world, including the Amazon rainforest popularly known as the lungs of Earth, are shrinking significantly due to indiscriminate development. When forests shrink, nature’s ability to absorb greenhouse gases is also reduced, which further speeds up global warming.ㅡEffects of global warming felt in our daily livesㅡGlobal warming is transforming not just the climate but the Earth’s ecosystem. As climate changes, ecosystems can be destroyed and can lead to big changes throughout the food chain affecting our lives as well. Effects of climate change on our livesl Changes in ecosystemAs the temperature increases, the number of mosquitoes who like warm weather is especially increasing at a rapid pace. The spread of mosquitoes leads to the spread of infectious diseases and diseases such as malaria and dengue fever are likely to spread even further. Additionally, the extinction of marine animals is being accelerated due to rising water temperatures and ocean acidification.l Increase in natural disastersAs the average temperature of the Earth rises, the sea stores more heat than the atmosphere, and the heated atmosphere and sea change the humidity and wind flow throughout the Earth causing changes in weather. Frequent floods, typhoons, droughts, landslides, and forest fires cause human and property damage and loss of homes.l Genetic variationsClimate change is changing the size of living organisms and causing many types of physiological phenomena that are different from before. For example, plants such as apricot trees and kiwis that can withstand high temperatures are emerging indicating that fundamental changes are taking place in the global ecosystem.l Threat to human healthThe persisting high temperature creates an environment more favorable for germs and pests to be active. The possibility of the occurrence of highly infectious diseases, such as cholera, diarrhea, malaria, bacterial dysentery, is increasing. l Acceleration of global inequalityAll the problems caused by climate change have a greater impact on the poor than the rich. The majority of people whose basic human rights are at risk of being violated due to climate change are those who live in poor countries. By 2050, the number of people who are unable to cope with climate change is expected to exceed 140 million. Climate change is a major factor that further exacerbates the problems of poverty and inequality.ㅡWarning! Warning!Global warming cannot be ignored any longerㅡEven if the number of greenhouse gases were to be decreased immediately, the problems brought by global warming will not be solved soon. It will take at least 100 to 300 years for carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to be normalized to the level before. That is why global warming that has already started is a very serious issue and why we need to raise awareness of the seriousness of the problem and act now. ㅡEveryone needs to participate to stop global warmingㅡInternational efforts to combat global warmingThere have been longtime international cooperation and effort to stop climate change. The international society has been taking global measures to reduce overall greenhouse emissions.△ November 30, 2015, Paris, France: Then UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon and French President Francois Hollande are waiting for other heads of state at the COP21 meeting in Paris. The Paris Climate Agreement was adopted at the COP21 meeting.l UN’s basic treaty on climate change, UNFCCCTo actively respond to climate change, the international society signed the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) in June of 1992, promising to address climate change. The key point of the UNFCC treaty is for all signatory parties to participate in stabilizing global warming and for the developed nations, who historically have greater responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions, to take greater responsibility. All signatory parties are to submit annually a national report to the UN about their measures to limit the Earth’s global warming and their nation’s greenhouse gas emission statistics.l Kyoto ProtocolIt is an international convention with a legally binding force. The 38 developed nations with historical responsibility for greenhouse gas emissions through active industrial revolutions resolved to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 5.2% from 1990 levels from 2008 to 2012.l Paris AgreementReplacing the Kyoto Protocol that expired in 2020, the Paris Agreement became applicable starting January of 2021. The Paris Agreement's long-term goal is to keep the increase of global average temperature to well below 2°C above pre-industrial levels and to pursue efforts to limit the increase to 1.5°C.National efforts to combat global warmingEach nation is preparing policies and regulations to minimize its greenhouse gas emissions. l Development of green energyEach nation is conducting research and developing green energy that can reduce the use of fossil fuels and improve the environment. l Environmental certification marksGovernments are preparing various policies related to business and personal production and consumption and encouraging the production and consumption of environmentally friendly products. Consumption of such products is being promoted through the designation of environmental certification marks. l Protection and support for those vulnerable to climate changeNational level protection and support aimed at residents of farming and fishing areas who are more severely impacted by climate change, people living in poverty who are vulnerable to natural disasters or infectious diseases, and residents living in low-lying coastal areas are being pursued.l Individual efforts to combat global warmingWhile international and national efforts to combat climate change are important, individual efforts are just as important. Actions that can be taken in daily lives must be implemented. l Conservation of energy and resourcesIf we lower heating by 1°C, 231kg of carbon dioxide can be saved annually per household. Energy can be saved by keeping winter season heating to under 20°C and summer season indoor temperature to between 26~28°C. If we decrease our time in the shower by 1 minute, we can reduce the amount of carbon dioxide produced by 7kg. Installing water-saving showerheads and water-efficient toilets, turning off the faucet while brushing our teeth, and doing laundry after clothes have been collected are all ways of conserving energy that we can practice in our daily lives.l Use of public transportation and bicyclesWe can improve our health and the health of the Earth by taking the bus, subway, and walking. By walking or riding the bicycle, carpooling, and using energy-efficient cars, we can reduce carbon dioxide emissions.l Use of eco-friendly productsWhen considering products with the same function, consider using a product that produces less environmental pollution. Select products that are energy-efficient or produce less waste.l Planting treesTrees absorb carbon dioxide. A pine tree absorbs 5kg of carbon dioxide per year. Northern Europe, which is heavily forested, has a greater absorption level of carbon dioxide and faceless pressure of reducing greenhouse gases. Efforts should be made to conserve forests and plant new trees.The climate environment is an international public good that all nations on Earth enjoy together. Therefore, it is impossible to make one nation or individual take responsibility for climate change. Developed nations that have already industrialized need to take lead and support the climate change response of developing nations to reduce the gap among nations. Policy development and implementation on a national level and individual effort in daily lives are also important.ㅡOur house is on fire!The time to act is now.ㅡ
Press Release Macky Sall Acceptance Speech
Macky Sall Acceptance SpeechHonorable Dr. Hak Ja Han Moon, co-founder of the Universal Peace FederationLadies and gentlemen, dear friends, distinguished guestsThe health situation which has put the international community in a state of emergency led me to cancel the trip to Seoul I was preparing myself for.It is with the deepest regret that I was not able to join you personally as I had planned. I would like to thank my Korean counterpart President Moon Jae In for all the preparations he made for my visit. It is with deep reverence that I salute the memory of Rev. Sun Myung Moon whose centenary we celebrate this year. He was a visionary leader and the inspiration behind the Universal Peace Federation. I would like to offer my highest esteem to the honorable Dr. Hak Ja Han Moon.For several decades, Dr. Hak Ja Han Moon has been the embodiment of incredible kindness. Her life demonstrates a profound heart of superlative commitment to the cause of peace and the wellbeing of humanity. Her unique ability and lifelong dedication to comfort those in need is leading to the realization of a harmonious global community filled with love. Her dedication deserves our unending respect and admiration.I would like to once again extend to her my respect and esteem. I see the members of the Universal Peace Federation as my associates. Ladies and gentlemen, in these times of turbulence and uncertainty, there is no task more urgent than fostering dialogue to allay tensions, promote mutual understanding and support the peaceful coexistence of people. It is with this spirit that in January 2018, Senegal welcomed the inaugural Africa Summit of the Universal Peace Federation. It is with this similar spirit that I humbly accept the Sunhak Peace Prize that you have awarded me. It is with humility that I accept this prize because to me, this award is not an end in itself but an encouragement to persevere in the culture of peace and human kinship.I accept this prize with humility because I recognize the essential blessing this prize brings to the people of Senegal. Every member of the Senegalese people has always harbored a profound sense of togetherness in their diversity. This prize is greater than my humble self. it is a prize that honors the people of Senegal and I would like to dedicate it to the people of Senegal. As I accept this award, I think about all those whose peace is usurped by violence and the vicissitudes of life. I think about the victims of war and terrorism, about refugees and displaced people, about those suffering from xenophobia and racial discrimination simply because of their origin or the color of their skin. Peace is fragile.When society is characterized by indifference and the madness of self-centeredness, this society cannot take care of those most in need. Peace is threatened when extremism of all types manipulates the conscience of people and turns faith into activism to feed ideologies of conflict. Peace is threatened when some believe they are imbued with the mission of forcing unto others a unique ideology of action and existence. This stands at odds with the diversity of cultures and civilizations. It is for all these reasons that we must defend the ideal of a better world for all. That is why, in agreement with the African Union Commission, I have decided to donate the entire prize amount of 500,000 USD of the Sunhak Peace Prize to the peace fund of the African Union. I hope for this to promote efforts to realize peace continentally. This is why, as a laureate of the Sunhak Peace Prize, I will endeavor to stay faithful to the ideal that unites us. I will endeavor to pursue together with you, our common efforts for the peaceful coexistence among people, cultures and civilizations. I wish tremendous success at your gathering.